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Medieval and Classical Library

The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway

Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Hakon Son of Sigurd

Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b

This saga might be called Gunhild's Saga, as she is the chief person in it. The reign of King Harald and Earl Hakon is more fully described in the next saga, that is, Olaf Trygvason's. Other literature on this epoch:

"Agrip" (chap. 8), "Historia Norvegia", (p. 12), "Thjodrek" (chap. 5), "Saxo" (pp. 479-482), "Egla" (chaps. 81, 82), "Floamanna" (chap. 12), "Fareyinga" (chaps. 2, 4, 10), "Halfred's Saga" (chap. 2), "Hord Grimkelsons Saga" (chaps. 13, 18), "Kormak" (chaps. 19-27), "Laxdaela" (chaps. 19-21), "Njala" (chaps, 3-6).

The skalds of this saga are: -- Glum Geirason, Kormak Agmundson, Eyvind Skaldaspiller, and Einar Helgason Skalaglam.


When King Hakon was killed, the sons of Eirik took the
sovereignty of Norway.  Harald, who was the oldest of the living
brothers, was over them in dignity.  Their mother Gunhild, who
was called the King-mother, mixed herself much in the affairs of
the country.  There were many chiefs in the land at that time.
There was Trygve Olafson in the Eastland, Gudrod Bjornson in
Vestfold, Sigurd earl of Hlader in the Throndhjem land; but
Gunhild's sons held the middle of the country the first winter.
There went messages and ambassadors between Gunhild's sons and
Trygve and Gudrod, and all was settled upon the footing that they
should hold from Gunhild's sons the same part of the country
which they formerly had held under King Hakon.  A man called Glum
Geirason, who was King Harald's skald, and was a very brave man,
made this song upon King Hakon's death: --

     "Gamle is avenged by Harald!
     Great is thy deed, thou champion bold!
     The rumour of it came to me
     In distant lands beyond the sea,
     How Harald gave King Hakon's blood
     To Odin's ravens for their food."

This song was much favoured.  When Eyvind Finson heard of it he
composed the song which was given before, viz.: --

     "Our dauntless king with Gamle's gore
     Sprinkled his bright sword o'er and o'er," &c.

This song also was much favoured, and was spread widely abroad;
and when King Harald came to hear of it, he laid a charge against
Evyind affecting his life; but friends made up the quarrel, on
the condition that Eyvind should in future be Harald's skald, as
he had formerly been King Hakon's.  There was also some
relationship between them, as Gunhild, Eyvind's mother, was a
daughter of Earl Halfdan, and her mother was Ingibjorg, a
daughter of Harald Harfager.  Thereafter Eyvind made a song about
King Harald: --

     "Guardian of Norway, well we know
     Thy heart failed not when from the bow
     The piercing arrow-hail sharp rang
     On shield and breast-plate, and the clang
     Of sword resounded in the press
     Of battle, like the splitting ice;
     For Harald, wild wolf of the wood,
     Must drink his fill of foeman's blood."

Gunhild's sons resided mostly in the middle of the country, for
they did not think it safe for them to dwell among the people of
Throndhjem or of Viken, where King Hakon's best friends lived;
and also in both places there were many powerful men.  Proposals
of agreement then passed between Gunhild~s sons and Earl Sigurd,
œor they got no scat from the Throndhjem country; and at last an
agreement was concluded between the kings and the earl, and
confirmed by oath.  Earl Sigurd was to get the same power in the
Throndhjem land which he had possessed under King Hakon, and on
that they considered themselves at peace.  All Gunhild's sons had
the character of being penurious; and it was said they hid their
money in the ground.  Eyvind Skaldaspiller made a song about
this: --

     "Main-mast of battle!  Harald bold!
     In Hakon's days the skald wore gold
     Upon his falcon's seat; he wore
     Rolf Krake's seed, the yellow ore
     Sown by him as he fled away,
     The avenger Adils' speed to stay.
     The gold crop grows upon the plain;
     But Frode's girls so gay (1) in vain
     Grind out the golden meal, while those
     Who rule o'er Norway's realm like foes,
     In mother earth's old bosom hide
     The wealth which Hakon far and wide
     Scattered with generous hand: the sun
     Shone in the days of that great one,
     On the gold band of Fulla's brow,(2)
     On gold-ringed hands that bend the bow,
     On the skald's hand; but of the ray
     Of bright gold, glancing like the spray
     Of sun-lit waves, no skald now sings --
     Buried are golden chains and rings."

Now when King Harald heard this song, he sent a message to Eyvind
to come to him, and when Eyvind came made a charge against him of
being unfaithful.  "And it ill becomes thee," said the king, "to
be my enemy, as thou hast entered into my service."  Eyvind then
made these verses: --

     "One lord I had before thee, Harald!
     One dear-loved lord!  Now am I old,
     And do not wish to change again, --
     To that loved lord, through strife and pain,
     Faithful I stood; still true to Hakon, --
     To my good king, and him alone.
     But now I'm old and useless grown,
     My hands are empty, wealth is flown;
     I am but fir for a short space
     In thy court-hall to fill a place."

But King Harald forced Eyvind to submit himself to his clemency.
Eyvind had a great gold ring, which was called Molde, that had
been dug up out of the earth long since.  This ring the King said
he must have as the mulet for the offence; and there was no help
for it.  Then Eyvind sang: --

     "I go across the ocean-foam,
     Swift skating to my Iceland home
     Upon the ocean-skates, fast driven
     By gales by Thurse's witch fire given.
     For from the falcon-bearing hand
     Harald has plucked the gold snake band
     My father wore -- by lawless might
     Has taken what is mine by right."

Eyvind went home; but it is not told that he ever came near the
king again.

(1)  Menja and Fenja were strong girls of the giant race, whom
     Frode bought in Sweden to grind gold and good luck to him;
     and their meal means gold. -- L.
(2)  Fulla was one of Frig's attendants, who wore a gold band on
     the forehead, and the figure means gold, -- that the sun
     shone on gold rings on the hands of the skalds in Hakon's
     days. -- L.


Gunhild's sons embraced Christianity in England, as told before;
but when they came to rule over Norway they made no progress in
spreading Christianity -- only they pulled down the temples of
the idols, and cast away the sacrifices where they had it in
their power, and raised great animosity by doing so.  The good
crops of the country were soon wasted in their days, because
there were many kings, and each had his court about him.  They
had therefore great expenses, and were very greedy.  Besides,
they only observed those laws of King Hakon which suited
themselves.  They were, however, all of them remarkably handsome
men -- stout, strong, and expert in all exercises.  So says Glum
Geirason, in the verses he composed about Harald, Gunhild's son:

     "The foeman's terror, Harald bold,
     Had gained enough of yellow gold;
     Had Heimdal's teeth (1) enough in store,
     And understood twelve arts or more."

The brothers sometimes went out on expeditions together, and
sometimes each on his own account.  They were fierce, but brave
and active; and great warriors, and very successful.

(1)  Heimdal was one of the gods, whose horse was called Gold-
     top; and the horse's teeth were of gold.


Gunhild the King-mother, and her sons, often met, and talked
together upon the government of the country.  Once Gunhild asked
her sons what they intended to do with their kingdom of
Throndhjem.  "Ye have the title of king, as your forefathers had
before you; but ye have little land or people, and there are many
to divide with.  In the East, at Viken, there are Trygve and
Gudrod; and they have some right, from relationship, to their
governments.  There is besides Earl Sigurd ruling over the whole
Throndhjem country; and no reason can I see why ye let so large a
kingdom be ruled by an earl, and not by yourselves.  It appears
wonderful to me that ye go every summer upon viking cruises
against other lands, and allow an earl within the country to take
your father's heritage from you.  Your grandfather, whose name
you bear, King Harald, thought it but a small matter to take an
earl's life and land when he subdued all Norway, and held it
under him to old age."

Harald replied, "It is not so easy, mother, to cut off Earl
Sigurd as to slay a kid or a calf.  Earl Sigurd is of high birth,
powerful in relations, popular, and prudent; and I think if the
Throndhjem people knew for certain there was enmity between us,
they would all take his side, and we could expect only evil from
them.  I don't think it would be safe for any of us brothers to
fall into the hands of the Throndhjem people."

Then said Gunhild, "We shall go to work another way, and not put
ourselves forward.  Harald and Erling shall come in harvest to
North More, and there I shall meet you, and we shall consult
together what is to be done."  This was done.


Earl Sigurd had a brother called Grjotgard, who was much younger,
and much less respected; in fact, was held in no title of honour. 
He had many people, however, about him, and in summer went on
viking cruises, and gathered to himself property.  Now King
Harald sent messengers to Throndhjem with offers of friendship,
and with presents.  The messengers declared that King Harald was
willing to be on the same friendly terms with the earl that King
Hakon had been; adding, that they wished the earl to come to King
Harald, that their friendship might be put on a firm footing. 
The Earl Sigurd received well the king's messengers and friendly
message, but said that on account of his many affairs he could
not come to the king.  He sent many friendly gifts, and many glad
and grateful words to the king, in return for his friendship. 
With this reply the messengers set off, and went to Grjotgard,
for whom they had the same message, and brought him good
presents, and offered him King Harald's friendship, and invited
him to visit the king.  Grjotgard promised to come and at the
appointed time he paid a visit to King Harald and Gunhild, and
was received in the most friendly manner.  They treated him on
the most intimate footing, so that Grjotgard had access to their
private consultations and secret councils.  At last the
conversation, by an understanding between the king and queen, was
turned upon Earl Sigurd; and they spoke to Grjotgard about the
earl having kept him so long in obscurity, and asked him if he
would not join the king's brothers in an attack on the earl.  If
he would join with them, the king promised Grjotgard that he
should be his earl, and have the same government that Sigurd had.
It came so far that a secret agreement was made between them,
that Grjotgard should spy out the most favourable opportunity of
attacking by surprise Earl Sigurd, and should give King Harald
notice of it.  After this agreement Grjotgard returned home with
many good presents from the king.


Earl Sigurd went in harvest into Stjoradal to guest-quarters, and
from thence went to Oglo to a feast.  The earl usually had many
people about him, for he did not trust the king; but now, after
friendly messages had passed between the king and him, he had no
great following of people with him.  Then Grjotgard sent word to
the king that he could never expect a better opportunity to fall
upon Earl Sigurd; and immediately, that very evening, Harald and
Erling sailed into Throndhjem fjord with several ships and many
people.  They sailed all night by starlight, and Grjotgard came
out to meet them.  Late in the night they came to Oglo, where
Earl Sigurd was at the feast, and set fire to the house; and
burnt the house, the earl, and all his men.  As soon as it was
daylight, they set out through the fjord, and south to More,
where they remained a long time.


Hakon, the son of Earl Sigurd, was up in the interior of the
Throndhjem country when he heard this news.  Great was the tumult
through all the Throndhjem land, and every vessel that could swim
was put into the water; and as soon as the people were gathered
together they took Earl Sigurd's son Hakon to be their earl and
the leader of the troops, and the whole body steered out of
Throndhjem fjord.  When Gunhild's sons heard of this, they set
off southwards to Raumsdal and South More; and both parties kept
eye on each other by their spies.  Earl Sigurd was killed two
years after the fall of King Hakon (A.D. 962).  So says Eyvind
Skaldaspiller in the "Haleygjatal": --

     "At Oglo. as I've heard, Earl Sigurd
     Was burnt to death by Norway's lord, --
     Sigurd, who once on Hadding's grave
     A feast to Odin's ravens gave.
     In Oglo's hall, amidst the feast,
     When bowls went round and ale flowed fast,
     He perished: Harald lit the fire
     Which burnt to death the son of Tyr."

Earl Hakan, with the help of his friends, maintained himself in
the Throndhjem country for three years; and during that time
(A.D. 963-965) Gunhild's sons got no revenues from it.  Hakon had
many a battle with Gunhild's sons, and many a man lost his life
on both sides.  Of this Einar Skalaglam speaks in his lay, called
"Vellekla," which he composed about Earl Hakon: --

     "The sharp bow-shooter on the sea
     Spread wide his fleet, for well loved he
     The battle storm: well loved the earl
     His battle-banner to unfurl,
     O'er the well-trampled battle-field
     He raised the red-moon of his shield;
     And often dared King Eirik's son
     To try the fray with the Earl Hakon."

And he also says-

     "Who is the man who'll dare to say
     That Sigurd's son avoids the fray?
     He gluts the raven -- he ne'er fears
     The arrow's song or flight of spears,
     With thundering sword he storms in war,
     As Odin dreadful; or from far
     He makes the arrow-shower fly
     To swell the sail of victory.
     The victory was dearly bought,
     And many a viking-fight was fought
     Before the swinger of the sword
     Was of the eastern country lord."

And Einar tells also how Earl Hakon avenged his father's
murderer: --

     "I praise the man, my hero he,
     Who in his good ship roves the sea,
     Like bird of prey, intent to win
     Red vengeance for his slaughtered kin.
     From his blue sword the iron rain
     That freezes life poured down amain
     On him who took his father's life,
     On him and his men in the strife.
     To Odin many a soul was driven, --
     To Odin many a rich gift given.
     Loud raged the storm on battle-field --
     Axe rang on helm, and sword on shield."

The friends on both sides at last laid themselves between, and
brought proposals of peace; for the bondes suffered by this
strife and war in the land.  At last it was brought to this, by
the advice of prudent men, that Earl Hakon should have the same
power in the Throndhjem land which his father Earl Sigurd had
enjoyed; and the kings, on the other hand, should have the same
dominion as King Hakon had: and this agreement was settled with
the fullest promises of fidelity to it.  Afterwards a great
friendship arose between Earl Hakon and Gunhild, although they
sometimes attempted to deceive each other.  And thus matters
stood for three years longer (A.D. 966-968), in which time Earl
Hakon sat quietly in his dominions.


King Hakon had generally his seat in Hordaland and Rogaland, and
also his brothers; but very often, also, they went to Hardanger.
One summer it happened that a vessel came from Iceland belonging
to Icelanders, and loaded with skins and peltry.  They sailed to
Hardanger, where they heard the greatest number of people
assembled; but when the folks came to deal with them, nobody
would buy their skins.  Then the steersman went to King Harald,
whom he had been acquainted with before, and complained of his
ill luck.  The king promised to visit him, and did so.  King
Harald was very condescending, and full of fun.  He came with a
fully manned boat, looked at the skins, and then said to the
steersman, "Wilt thou give me a present of one of these gray-
skins?"  "Willingly," said the steersman, "if it were ever so
many."  On this the king wrapped himself up in a gray-skin, and
went back to his boat; but before they rowed away from the ship,
every man in his suite bought such another skin as the king wore
for himself.  In a few days so many people came to buy skins,
that not half of them could be served with what they wanted; and
thereafter the king was called Harald Grafeld (Grayskin).


Earl Hakon came one winter to the Uplands to a feast, and it so
happened that he had intercourse with a girl of mean birth.  Some
time after the girl had to prepare for her confinement, and she
bore a child, a boy, who had water poured on him, and was named
Eirik.  The mother carried the boy to Earl Hakon, and said that
he was the father.  The earl placed him to be brought up with a
man called Thorleif the Wise, who dwelt in Medaldal, and was a
rich and powerful man, and a great friend of the earl.  Eirik
gave hopes very early that he would become an able man, was
handsome in countenance, and stout and strong for a child; but
the earl did not pay much attention to him.  The earl himself was
one of the handsomest men in countenance, -- not tall, but very
strong, and well practised in all kinds of exercises; and witha1
prudent, of good understanding, and a deadly man at arms.


It happened one harvest (A.D. 962) that Earl Hakon, on a journey
in the Uplands, came to Hedemark; and King Trygve Olafson and
King Gudrod Bjornson met him there, and Dale-Gudbrand also came
to the meeting.  They had agreed to meet, and they talked
together long by themselves; but so much only was known of their
business, that they were to be friends of each other.  They
parted, and each went home to his own kingdom.  Gunhild and her
sons came to hear of this meeting, and they suspected it must
have been to lay a treasonable plot against the kings; and they
often talked of this among themselves.  When spring (A.D. 963)
began to set in, King Harald and his brother King Gudrod
proclaimed that they were to make a viking cruise, as usual,
either in the West sea, or the Baltic.  The people accordingly
assembled, launched the ships into the sea, and made themselves
ready to sail.  When they were drinking the farewell ale, -- and
they drank bravely, -- much and many things were talked over at
the drink-table, and, among other things, were comparisons
between different men, and at last between the kings themselves. 
One said that King Harald excelled his brothers by far, and in
every way.  On this King Gudrod was very angry, and said that he
was in no respect behind Harald, and was ready to prove it. 
Instantly both parties were so inflamed that they challenged each
other to battle, and ran to their arms.  But some of the guests
who were less drunk, and had more understanding, came between
them, and quieted them; and each went to his ship, but nobody
expected that they would all sail together.  Gudrod sailed east
ward along the land, and Harald went out to sea, saying he would
go to the westward; but when he came outside of the islands he
steered east along the coast, outside of the rocks and isles.
Gudrod, again, sailed inside, through the usual channel, to
Viken, and eastwards to Folden.  He then sent a message to King
Trygve to meet him, that they might make a cruise together in
summer in the Baltic to plunder.  Trygve accepted willingly, and
as a friend, the invitation; and as heard King Gudrod had but few
people with him, he came to meet him with a single boat.  They
met at Veggen, to the east of Sotanes; but just as they were come
to the meeting place, Gudrod's men ran up and killed King Trygve
and twelve men.  He lies buried at a place called Trygve's Cairn
(A.D. 963).


King Harald sailed far outside of the rocks and isles; but set
his course to Viken, and came in the night-time to Tunsberg, and
heard that Gudrod Bjornson was at a feast a little way up the
country.  Then King Harald set out immediately with his
followers, came in the night, and surrounded the house.  King
Gudrod Bjornson went out with his people; but after a short
resistance he fell, and many men with him.  Then King Harald
joined his brother King Gudrod, and they subdued all Viken.


King Gudrod Bjornson had made a good and suitable marriage, and
had by his wife a son called Harald, who had been sent to be
fostered to Grenland to a lenderman called Hroe the White. 
Hroe's son, called Hrane Vidforle (the Far-travelled), was
Harald's foster-brother, and about the same age.  After his
father Gudrod's fall, Harald, who was called Grenske, fled to the
Uplands, and with him his foster-brother Hrane, and a few people.
Harald staid a while there among his relations; but as Eirik's
sons sought after every man who interfered with them, and
especially those who might oppose them, Harald Grenske's friends
and relations advised him to leave the country.  Harald therefore
went eastward into Svithjod, and sought shipmates, that he might
enter into company with those who went out a cruising to gather
property.  Harald became in this way a remarkably able man. 
There was a man in Svithjod at that time called Toste, one of the
most powerful and clever in the land among those who had no high
name or dignity; and he was a great warrior, who had been often
in battle, and was therefore called Skoglar-Toste.  Harald
Grenske came into his company, and cruised with Toste in summer;
and wherever Harald came he was well thought of by every one.  In
the winter Harald, after passing two years in the Uplands, took
up his abode with Toste, and lived five years with him.  Toste
had a daughter, who was both young and handsome, but she was
proud and high-minded.  She was called Sigrid, and was afterwards
married to the Swedish king, Eirik the Victorious, and had a son
by him, called Olaf the Swede, who was afterwards king of
Svithjod.  King Eirik died in a sick-bed at Upsala ten years
after the death of Styrbjorn.


Gunhild's sons levied a great army in Viken (A.D. 963), and
sailed along the land northwards, collecting people and ships on
the way out of every district.  They then made known their
intent, to proceed northwards with their army against Earl Hakon
in Throndhjem.  When Earl Hakon heard this news, he also
collected men, and fitted out ships; and when he heard what an
overwhelming force Gunhild's sons had with them, he steered south
with his fleet to More, pillaging wherever he came, and killing
many people.  He then sent the whole of the bonde army back to
Throndhjem; but he himself, with his men-at-arms, proceeded by
both the districts of More and Raumsdal, and had his spies out to
the south of Stad to spy the army of Gunhild's sons; and when he
heard they were come into the Fjords, and were waiting for a fair
wind to sail northwards round Stad, Earl Hakon set out to sea
from the north side of Stad, so far that his sails could not be
seen from the land, and then sailed eastward on a line with the
coast, and came to Denmark, from whence he sailed into the
Baltic, and pillaged there during the summer.  Gunhild's sons
conducted their army north to Throndhjem, and remained there the
whole summer collecting the scat and duties.  But when summer was
advanced they left Sigurd Slefa and Gudron behind; and the other
brothers returned eastward with the levied army they had taken up
in summer.


Earl Hakon, towards harvest (A.D. 963), sailed into the Bothnian
Gulf to Helsingjaland, drew his ships up there on the beach, and
took the land-ways through Helsingjaland and Jamtaland, and so
eastwards round the dividing ridge (the Kjol, or keel of the
country), and down into the Throndhjem district.  Many people
streamed towards him, and he fitted out ships.  When the sons of
Gunhild heard of this they got on board their ships, and sailed
out of the Fjord; and Earl Hakon came to his seat at Hlader, and
remained there all winter.  The sons of Gunhild, on the other
hand, occupied More; and they and the earl attacked each other in
turns, killing each other's people. Earl Hakon kept his dominions
of Throndhjem, and was there generally in the winter; but in
summer he sometimes went to Helsingjaland, where he went on board
of his ships and sailed with them down into the Baltic, and
plundered there; and sometimes he remained in Throndhjem, and
kept an army on foot, so that Gunhild's sons could get no hold
northwards of Stad.


One summer Harald Grayskin with his troops went north to
Bjarmaland, where be forayed, and fought a great battle with the
inhabitants on the banks of the Vina (Dwina).  King Harald gained
the victory, killed many people, plundered and wasted and burned
far and wide in the land, and made enormous booty.  Glum Geirason
tells of it thus: --

     "I saw the hero Harald chase
     With bloody sword Bjarme's race:
     They fly before him through the night,
     All by their burning city's light.
     On Dwina's bank, at Harald's word,
     Arose the storm of spear and sword.
     In such a wild war-cruise as this,
     Great would he be who could bring peace."

King Sigurd Slefa came to the Herse Klyp's house.  Klyp was a son
of Thord, and a grandson of Hordakare, and was a man of power and
great family.  He was not at home; but his wife Alof give a good
reception to the king, and made a great feast at which there was
much drinking.  Alof was a daughter of Asbjorn, and sister to
Jarnskegge, north in Yrjar.  Asbjorn's brother was called
Hreidar, who was father to Styrkar, whose son was Eindride,
father of Einar Tambaskielfer.  In the night the king went to bed
to Alof against her will, and then set out on his journey.  The
harvest thereafter, King Harald and his brother King Sigurd Slefa
went to Vors, and summoned the bondes to a Thing.  There the
bondes fell on them, and would have killed them, but they escaped
and took different roads.  King Harald went to Hardanger, but
King Sigurd to Alrekstader.  Now when the Herse Klyp heard of
this, he and his relations assembled to attack the king; and
Vemund Volubrjot (1) was chief of their troop.  Now when they
came to the house they attacked the king, and Herse Klyp, it is
said, ran him through with his sword and killed him; but
instantly Klyp was killed on the spot by Erling Gamle (A.D. 965).

(1)  Volubrjotr. -- Literally "the one who breaks the vala", that
     is, breaks the skulls of witches.


King Harald Grafeld and his brother King Gudrod gathered together
a great army in the east country, with which they set out
northwards to Throndhjem (A.D. 968).  When Earl Hakon heard of it
he collected men, and set out to More, where he plundered.  There
his father's brother, Grjotgard, had the command and defence of
the country on account of Gunhild's sons, and he assembled an
army by order of the kings.  Earl Hakon advanced to meet him, and
gave him battle; and there fell Grjotgard and two other earls,
and many a man besides.  So says Einar Skalaglam: --

     "The helm-crown'd Hakon, brave as stout,
     Again has put his foes to rout.
     The bowl runs o'er with Odin's mead, (1)
     That fires the skald when mighty deed
     Has to be sung.  Earl Hakon's sword,
     In single combat, as I've heard,
     Three sons of earls from this one fray
     To dwell with Odin drove away." (2)

Thereafter Earl Hakon went out to sea, and sailed outside the
coast, and came to Denmark.  He went to the Danish King, Harald
Gormson, and was well received by him, and staid with him all
winter (A.D. 969).  At that time there was also with the Danish
king a man called Harald, a son of Knut Gormson, and a brother's
son of King Harald.  He was lately come home from a long viking
cruise, on which he had gathered great riches, and therefore he
was called Gold Harald.  He thought he had a good chance of
coming to the Danish kingdom.

(1)  Odin's mead, called Bodn, was the blood or mead the sons of
     Brage, the god of poets, drank to inspire them. -- L.
(2)  To dwell with Odin, -- viz. slew them. -- L.


King Harald Grafeld and his brothers proceeded northwards to
Throndhjem, where they met no opposition.  They levied the
scat-duties, and all other revenues, and laid heavy penalties
upon the bondes; for the kings had for a long time received but
little income from Throndhjem, because Earl Hakon was there with
many troops, and was at variance with these kings.  In autumn
(A.D. 968) King Harald went south with the greater part of the
men-at-arms, but King Erlin remained behind with his men.  He
raised great contributions from the bondes, and pressed severely
on them; at which the bondes murmured greatly, and submitted to
their losses with impatience.  In winter they gathered together
in a great force to go against King Erling, just as he was at a
feast; and they gave battle to him, and he with the most of his
men fell (A.D. 969).


While Gunhild's sons reigned in Norway the seasons were always
bad, and the longer they reigned the worse were the crops; and
the bondes laid the blame on them. They were very greedy, and
used the bondes harshly.  It came at length to be so bad that
fish, as well as corn, were wanting.  In Halogaland there was the
greatest famine and distress; for scarcely any corn grew, and
even snow was lying, and the cattle were bound in the byres (1)
all over the country until midsummer.  Eyvind Skaldaspiller
describes it in his poem, as he came outside of his house and
found a thick snowdrift at that season: --

     "Tis midsummer, yet deep snows rest
     On Odin's mother's frozen breast:
     Like Laplanders, our cattle-kind
     In stall or stable we must bind."

(1)  Byres = gards or farms.


Eyvind composed a poem about the people of Iceland, for which
they rewarded him by each bonde giving him three silver pennies,
of full weight and white in the fracture.  And when the silver
was brought together at the Althing, the people resolved to have
it purified, and made into a row of clasps; and after the
workmanship of the silver was paid, the row of clasps was valued
at fifty marks.  This they sent to Eyvind; but Eyvind was obliged
to separate the clasps from each other, and sell them to buy food
for his household.  But the same spring a shoal of herrings set
in upon the fishing ground beyond the coast-side, and Eyvind
manned a ship's boat with his house servants and cottars, and
rowed to where the herrings were come, and sang: --

     "Now let the steed of ocean bound
     O'er the North Sea with dashing sound:
     Let nimble tern and screaming gull
     Fly round and round -- our net is full.
     Fain would I know if Fortune sends
     A like provision to my friends.
     Welcome provision 'tis, I wot,
     That the whale drives to our cook's pot."

So entirely were his movable goods exhausted, that he was obliged
to sell his arrows to buy herrings, or other meat for his table:

     "Our arms and ornaments of gold
     To buy us food we gladly sold:
     The arrows of the bow gave we
     For the bright arrows of the sea." (1)

(1)  Herrings, from their swift darting along, are called the
     arrows of the sea.

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