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Medieval and Classical Library

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Part 6: A.D. 1070 - 1101

Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #17

A.D. 1070.  This year Landfranc, who was Abbot of Caen, came to
England; and after a few days he became Archbishop of Canterbury.
He was invested on the fourth before the calends of September in
his own see by eight bishops, his suffragans.  The others, who
were not there, by messengers and by letter declared why they
could not be there.  The same year Thomas, who was chosen Bishop
of York, came to Canterbury, to be invested there after the
ancient custom.  But when Landfranc craved confirmation of his
obedience with an oath, he refused; and said, that he ought not
to do it.  Whereupon Archbishop Landfranc was wroth, and bade the
bishops, who were come thither by Archbishop Landfranc's command
to do the service, and all the monks to unrobe themselves.  And
they by his order so did.  Thomas, therefore, for the time,
departed without consecration.  Soon after this, it happened that
the Archbishop Landfranc went to Rome, and Thomas with him.  When
they came thither, and had spoken about other things concerning
which they wished to speak, then began Thomas his speech: how he
came to Canterbury, and how the archbishop required obedience of
him with an oath; but he declined it.  Then began the Archbishop
Landfranc to show with clear distinction, that what he craved he
craved by right; and with strong arguments he confirmed the same
before the Pope Alexander, and before all the council that was
collected there; and so they went home.  After this came Thomas
to Canterbury; and all that the archbishop required of him he
humbly fulfilled, and afterwards received consecration.  This
year Earl Waltheof agreed with the king; but in the Lent of the
same year the king ordered all the monasteries in England to be
plundered.  In the same year came King Sweyne from Denmark into
the Humber; and the landsmen came to meet him, and made a treaty
with him; thinking that he would overrun the land.  Then came
into Ely Christien, the Danish bishop, and Earl Osbern, and the
Danish domestics with them; and the English people from all the
fen-lands came to them; supposing that they should win all that
land.  Then the monks of Peterborough heard say, that their own
men would plunder the minster; namely Hereward and his gang:
because they understood that the king had given the abbacy to a
French abbot, whose name was Thorold; -- that he was a very stern
man, and was then come into Stamford with all his Frenchmen.  Now
there was a churchwarden, whose name was Yware; who took away by
night all that he could, testaments, mass-hackles, cantel-copes,
and reefs, and such other small things, whatsoever he could; and
went early, before day, to the Abbot Thorold; telling him that he
sought his protection, and informing him how the outlaws were
coming to Peterborough, and that he did all by advice of the
monks.  Early in the morning came all the outlaws with many
ships, resolving to enter the minster; but the monks withstood,
so that they could not come in.  Then they laid on fire, and
burned all the houses of the monks, and all the town except one
house.  Then came they in through fire at the Bull-hithe gate;
where the monks met them, and besought peace of them.  But they
regarded nothing.  They went into the minster, climbed up to the
holy rood, took away the diadem from our Lord's head, all of pure
gold, and seized the bracket that was underneath his feet, which
was all of red gold.  They climbed up to the steeple, brought
down the table that was hid there, which was all of gold and
silver, seized two golden shrines, and nine of silver, and took
away fifteen large crucifixes, of gold and of silver; in short,
they seized there so much gold and silver, and so many treasures,
in money, in raiment, and in books, as no man could tell another;
and said, that they did it from their attachment to the minster.
Afterwards they went to their ships, proceeded to Ely, and
deposited there all the treasure.  The Danes, believing that they
should overcome the Frenchmen, drove out all the monks; leaving
there only one, whose name was Leofwine Lang, who lay sick in the
infirmary.  Then came Abbot Thorold and eight times twenty
Frenchmen with him, all full-armed.  When he came thither, he
found all within and without consumed by fire, except the church
alone; but the outlaws were all with the fleet, knowing that he
would come thither.  This was done on the fourth day before the
nones of June.  The two kings, William and Sweyne, were now
reconciled; and the Danes went out of Ely with all the aforesaid
treasure, and carried it away with them.  But when they came into
the middle of the sea, there came a violent storm, and dispersed
all the ships wherein the treasures were.  Some went to Norway,
some to Ireland, some to Denmark.  All that reached the latter,
consisted of the table, and some shrines, and some crucifixes,
and many of the other treasures; which they brought to a king's
town, called ---, and deposited it all there in the church.
Afterwards through their own carelessness, and through their
drunkenness, in one night the church and all that was therein was
consumed by fire.  Thus was the minster of Peterborough burned
and plundered.  Almighty God have mercy on it through his great
goodness.  Thus came the Abbot Thorold to Peterborough; and the
monks too returned, and performed the service of Christ in the
church, which had before stood a full week without any kind of
rite.  When Bishop Aylric heard it, he excommunicated all the men
who that evil deed had done.  There was a great famine this year:
and in the summer came the fleet in the north from the Humber
into the Thames, and lay there two nights, and made afterwards
for Denmark.  Earl Baldwin also died, and his son Arnulf
succeeded to the earldom.  Earl William, in conjunction with the
king of the Franks, was to be his guardian; but Earl Robert came
and slew his kinsman Arnulf and the earl, put the king to flight,
and slew many thousands of his men.

A.D. 1071.  This year Earl Edwin and Earl Morkar fled out, (93)
and roamed at random in woods and in fields.  Then went Earl
Morkar to Ely by ship; but Earl Edwin was treacherously slain by
his own men.  Then came Bishop Aylwine, and Siward Barn, and many
hundred men with them, into Ely.  When King William heard that,
then ordered he out a naval force and land force, and beset the
land all about, and wrought a bridge, and went in; and the naval
force at the same time on the sea-side.  And the outlaws then all
surrendered; that was, Bishop Aylwine, and Earl Morkar, and all
that were with them; except Hereward (94) alone, and all those
that would join him, whom he led out triumphantly.  And the king
took their ships, and weapons, and many treasures; (95) and all
the men he disposed of as he thought proper.  Bishop Aylwine he
sent to Abingdon, where he died in the beginning of the winter.

A.D. 1072.  This year King William led a naval force and a land
force to Scotland, and beset that land on the sea-side with
ships, whilst he led his land-force in at the Tweed; (96) but he
found nothing there of any value.  King Malcolm, however, came,
and made peace with King William, and gave hostages, and became
his man; whereupon the king returned home with all his force.
This year died Bishop Aylric.  He had been invested Bishop of
York; but that see was unjustly taken from him, and he then had
the bishopric of Durham given him; which he held as long as he
chose, but resigned it afterwards, and retired to Peterborough
minster; where he abode twelve years.  After that King William
won England, then took he him from Peterborough, and sent him to
Westminster; where he died on the ides of October, and he is
there buried, within the minster, in the porch of St. Nicholas.

A.D. 1073.  This year led King William an army, English and
French, over sea, and won the district of Maine; which the
English very much injured by destroying the vineyards, burning
the towns, and spoiling the land.  But they subdued it all into
the hand of King William, and afterwards returned home to

A.D. 1074.  This year King William went over sea to Normandy; and
child Edgar came from Flanders into Scotland on St. Grimbald's
mass-day; where King Malcolm and his sister Margaret received him
with much pomp.  At the same time sent Philip, the King of
France, a letter to him, bidding him to come to him, and he would
give him the castle of Montreuil; that he might afterwards daily
annoy his enemies.  What then?  King Malcolm and his sister
Margaret gave him and his men great presents, and many treasures;
in skins ornamented with purple, in pelisses made of martin-
skins, of grey-skins, and of ermine-skins, in palls, and in
vessels of gold and silver; and conducted him and his crew with
great pomp from his territory.  But in their voyage evil befel
them; for when they were out at sea, there came upon them such
rough weather, and the stormy sea and the strong wind drove them
so violently on the shore, that all their ships burst, and they
also themselves came with difficulty to the land.  Their treasure
was nearly all lost, and some of his men also were taken by the
French; but he himself and his best men returned again to
Scotland, some roughly travelling on foot, and some miserably
mounted.  Then King Malcolm advised him to send to King William
over sea, to request his friendship, which he did; and the king
gave it him, and sent after him.  Again, therefore, King Malcolm
and his sister gave him and all his men numberless treasures, and
again conducted him very magnificently from their territory.  The
sheriff of York came to meet him at Durham, and went all the way
with him; ordering meat and fodder to be found for him at every
castle to which they came, until they came over sea to the king.
Then King William received him with much pomp; and he was there
afterwards in his court, enjoying such rights as he confirmed to
him by law.

A.D. 1075.  This year King William gave Earl Ralph the daughter
of William Fitz-Osborne to wife.  This same Ralph was British on
his mother's side; but his father, whose name was also Ralph, was
English; and born in Norfolk.  The king therefore gave his son
the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk; and he then led the bride to
          There was that bride-ale
          The source of man's bale.
There was Earl Roger, and Earl Waltheof, and bishops, and abbots;
who there resolved, that they would drive the king out of the
realm of England.  But it was soon told the king in Normandy how
it was determined.  It was Earl Roger and Earl Ralph who were the
authors of that plot; and who enticed the Britons to them, and
sent eastward to Denmark after a fleet to assist them.  Roger
went westward to his earldom, and collected his people there, to
the king's annoyance, as he thought; but it was to the great
disadvantage of himself.  He was however prevented.  Ralph also
in his earldom would go forth with his people; but the castlemen
that were in England and also the people of the land, came
against him, and prevented him from doing anything.  He escaped
however to the ships at Norwich. (97)  And his wife was in the
castle; which she held until peace was made with her; when she
went out of England, with all her men who wished to join her. 
The king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger, his
relative, and put him in prison.  And Earl Waltheof went over
sea, and bewrayed himself; but he asked forgiveness, and
proffered gifts of ransom.  The king, however, let him off
lightly, until he (98) came to England; when he had him seized. 
Soon after that came east from Denmark two hundred ships; wherein
were two captains, Cnute Swainson, and Earl Hacco; but they durst
not maintain a fight with King William.  They went rather to
York, and broke into St. Peter's minster, and took therein much
treasure, and so went away.  They made for Flanders over sea; but
they all perished who were privy to that design; that was, the
son of Earl Hacco, and many others with him.  This year died the
Lady Edgitha, who was the relict of King Edward, seven nights
before Christmas, at Winchester; and the king caused her to be
brought to Westminster with great pomp; and he laid her with King
Edward, her lord.  And the king was then at Westminster, at
midwinter; where all the Britons were condemned who were at the
bride-ale at Norwich.  Some were punished with blindness; some
were driven from the land; and some were towed to Scandinavia. 
So were the traitors of King William subdued.

A.D. 1076.  This year died Sweyne, King of Denmark; and Harold
his son took to the kingdom.  And the king gave the abbacy of
Westminster to Abbot Vitalis, who had been Abbot of Bernay.  This
year also was Earl Waltheof beheaded at Winchester, on the mass-
day of St. Petronilla; (99) and his body was carried to Croyland,
where he lies buried.  King William now went over sea, and led
his army to Brittany, and beset the castle of Dol; but the
Bretons defended it, until the king came from France; whereupon
William departed thence, having lost there both men and horses,
and many of his treasures.

A.D. 1077.  This year were reconciled the king of the Franks and
William, King of England.  But it continued only a little while.
This year was London burned, one night before the Assumption of
St. Mary, so terribly as it never was before, since it was built.
This year the moon was eclipsed three nights before Candlemas;
and in the same year died Aylwy, the prudent Abbot of Evesham, on
the fourteenth day before the calends of March, on the mass-day
of St. Juliana; and Walter was appointed abbot in his stead; and
Bishop Herman also died, on the tenth day before the calends of
March, who was Bishop in Berkshire, and in Wiltshire, and in
Dorsetshire.  This year also King Malcolm won the mother of
Malslaythe.... and all his best men, and all his treasures, and
his cattle; and he himself not easily escaped.... This year also
was the dry summer; and wild fire came upon many shires, and
burned many towns; and also many cities were ruined thereby.

A.D. 1079.  This year Robert, the son of King William, deserted
from his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders; because his
father would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy; which he
himself, and also King Philip with his permission, had given him.
The best men that were in the land also had sworn oaths of
allegiance to him, and taken him for their lord.  This year,
therefore, Robert fought with his father, without Normandy, by a
castle called Gerberoy; and wounded him in the hand; and his
horse, that he sat upon, was killed under him; and he that
brought him another was killed there right with a dart.  That was
Tookie Wiggodson.  Many were there slain, and also taken.  His
son William too was there wounded; but Robert returned to
Flanders.  We will not here, however, record any more injury that
he did his father.  This year came King Malcolm from Scotland
into England, betwixt the two festivals of St. Mary, with a large
army, which plundered Northumberland till it came to the Tine,
and slew many hundreds of men, and carried home much coin, and
treasure, and men in captivity.

A.D. 1080.  This year was Bishop Walker slain in Durham, at a
council; and an hundred men with him, French and Flemish.  He
himself was born in Lorrain.  This did the Northumbrians in the
month of May. (100)

A.D. 1081.  This year the king led an army into Wales, and there
freed many hundreds of men.

A.D. 1082.  This year the king seized Bishop Odo; and this year
also was a great famine.

A.D. 1083.  This year arose the tumult at Glastonbury betwixt the
Abbot Thurstan and his monks.  It proceeded first from the
abbot's want of wisdom, that he misgoverned his monks in many
things.  But the monks meant well to him; and told him that he
should govern them rightly, and love them, and they would be
faithful and obedient to him.  The abbot, however, would hear
nothing of this; but evil entreated them, and threatened them
worse.  One day the abbot went into the chapter-house, and spoke
against the monks, and attempted to mislead them; (101) and sent
after some laymen, and they came full-armed into the chapter-
house upon the monks.  Then were the monks very much afraid (102)
of them, and wist not what they were to do, but they shot
forward, and some ran into the church, and locked the doors after
them.  But they followed them into the minster, and resolved to
drag them out, so that they durst not go out.  A rueful thing
happened on that day.  The Frenchmen broke into the choir, and
hurled their weapons toward the altar, where the monks were; and
some of the knights went upon the upper floor, (103) and shot
their arrows downward incessantly toward the sanctuary; so that
on the crucifix that stood above the altar they stuck many
arrows.  And the wretched monks lay about the altar, and some
crept under, and earnestly called upon God, imploring his mercy,
since they could not obtain any at the hands of men.  What can we
say, but that they continued to shoot their arrows; whilst the
others broke down the doors, and came in, and slew (104) some of
the monks to death, and wounded many therein; so that the blood
came from the altar upon the steps, and from the steps on the
floor.  Three there were slain to death, and eighteen wounded.
And in this same year departed Matilda, queen of King William, on
the day after All-Hallow-mass.  And in the same year also, after
mid-winter, the king ordained a large and heavy contribution
(105) over all England; that was, upon each hide of land, two and
seventy pence.

A.D. 1084.  In this year died Wulfwold, Abbot of Chertsey, on the
thirteenth day before the calends of May.

A.D. 1085.  In this year men reported, and of a truth asserted,
that Cnute, King of Denmark, son of King Sweyne, was coming
hitherward, and was resolved to win this land, with the
assistance of Robert, Earl of Flanders; (106) for Cnute had
Robert's daughter.  When William, King of England, who was then
resident in Normandy (for he had both England and Normandy),
understood this, he went into England with so large an army of
horse and foot, from France and Brittany, as never before sought
this land; so that men wondered how this land could feed all that
force.  But the king left the army to shift for themselves
through all this land amongst his subjects, who fed them, each
according to his quota of land.  Men suffered much distress this
year; and the king caused the land to be laid waste about the sea
coast; that, if his foes came up, they might not have anything on
which they could very readily seize.  But when the king
understood of a truth that his foes were impeded, and could not
further their expedition, (107) then let he some of the army go
to their own land; but some he held in this land over the winter.
Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Glocester with his
council, and held there his court five days.  And afterwards the
archbishop and clergy had a synod three days.  There was
Mauritius chosen Bishop of London, William of Norfolk, and Robert
of Cheshire.  These were all the king's clerks.  After this had
the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his
council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort
of men.  Then sent he his men over all England into each shire;
commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were
in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon
the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the
shire."  Also he commissioned them to record in writing, "How
much land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his
abbots, and his earls;" and though I may be prolix and tedious,
"What, or how much, each man had, who was an occupier of land in
England, either in land or in stock, and how much money it were
worth."  So very narrowly, indeed, did he commission them to
trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a yard
(108) of land, nay, moreover (it is shameful to tell, though he
thought it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a
swine was there left, that was not set down in his writ.  And all
the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him. (109)

A.D. 1086.  This year the king bare his crown, and held his
court, in Winchester at Easter; and he so arranged, that he was
by the Pentecost at Westminster, and dubbed his son Henry a
knight there.  Afterwards he moved about so that he came by
Lammas to Sarum; where he was met by his councillors; and all the
landsmen that were of any account over all England became this
man's vassals as they were; and they all bowed themselves before
him, and became his men, and swore him oaths of allegiance that
they would against all other men be faithful to him.  Thence he
proceeded into the Isle of Wight; because he wished to go into
Normandy, and so he afterwards did; though he first did according
to his custom; he collected a very large sum from his people,
wherever he could make any demand, whether with justice or
otherwise.  Then he went into Normandy; and Edgar Etheling, the
relation of King Edward, revolted from him, for he received not
much honour from him; but may the Almighty God give him honour
hereafter.  And Christina, the sister of the etheling, went into
the monastery of Rumsey, and received the holy veil.  And the
same year there was a very heavy season, and a swinkful and
sorrowful year in England, in murrain of cattle, and corn and
fruits were at a stand, and so much untowardness in the weather,
as a man may not easily think; so tremendous was the thunder and
lightning, that it killed many men; and it continually grew worse
and worse with men.  May God Almighty better it whenever it be
his will.

A.D. 1087.  After the birth of our Lord and Saviour Christ, one
thousand and eighty-seven winters; in the one and twentieth year
after William began to govern and direct England, as God granted
him, was a very heavy and pestilent season in this land.  Such a
sickness came on men, that full nigh every other man was in the
worst disorder, that is, in the diarrhoea; and that so
dreadfully, that many men died in the disorder.  Afterwards came,
through the badness of the weather as we before mentioned, so
great a famine over all England, that many hundreds of men died a
miserable death through hunger.  Alas!  how wretched and how
rueful a time was there!  When the poor wretches lay full nigh
driven to death prematurely, and afterwards came sharp hunger,
and dispatched them withall!  Who will not be penetrated with
grief at such a season?  or who is so hardhearted as not to weep
at such misfortune?  Yet such things happen for folks' sins, that
they will not love God and righteousness.  So it was in those
days, that little righteousness was in this land with any men but
with the monks alone, wherever they fared well.  The king and the
head men loved much, and overmuch, covetousness in gold and in
silver; and recked not how sinfully it was got, provided it came
to them.  The king let his land at as high a rate as he possibly
could; then came some other person, and bade more than the former
one gave, and the king let it to the men that bade him more. 
Then came the third, and bade yet more; and the king let it to
hand to the men that bade him most of all: and he recked not how
very sinfully the stewards got it of wretched men, nor how many
unlawful deeds they did; but the more men spake about right law,
the more unlawfully they acted.  They erected unjust tolls, and
many other unjust things they did, that are difficult to reckon.
Also in the same year, before harvest, the holy minster of St.
Paul, the episcopal see in London, was completely burned, with
many other minsters, and the greatest part, and the richest of
the whole city.  So also, about the same time, full nigh each
head-port in all England was entirely burned.  Alas!  rueful and
woeful was the fate of the year that brought forth so many
misfortunes.  In the same year also, before the Assumption of St.
Mary, King William went from Normandy into France with an army,
and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king, and slew many of
his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters
that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading
the life of anachorets, were burned therein.  This being thus
done, King William returned to Normandy.  Rueful was the thing he
did; but a more rueful him befel.  How more rueful?  He fell
sick, and it dreadfully ailed him.  What shall I say?  Sharp
death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also.
He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St.
Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster, which
he had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold
gifts.  Alas!  how false and how uncertain is this world's weal! 
He that was before a rich king, and lord of many lands, had not
then of all his land more than a space of seven feet!  and he
that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered
with mould!  He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called
Robert, who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called
William, who wore the crown after him in England; and the third,
called Henry, to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure.  If
any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour
he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write
about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon
him, and lived sometime in his court.  This King William then
that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more
splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were.  He was
mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure
severe to the men that gainsayed his will.  On that same spot
where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a
mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it.  In
his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also
very many others over all England.  This land was moreover well
filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St.
Benedict.  But such was the state of Christianity in his time,
that each man followed what belonged to his profession -- he that
would.  He was also very dignified.  Thrice he bare his crown
each year, as oft as he was in England.  At Easter he bare it in
Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in
Glocester.  And then were with him all the rich men over all
England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls,
thanes and knights.  So very stern was he also and hot, that no
man durst do anything against his will.  He had earls in his
custody, who acted against his will.  Bishops he hurled from
their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into
prison.  At length he spared not his own brother Odo, who was a
very rich bishop in Normandy.  At Baieux was his episcopal stall;
and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king.  He
had an earldom in England; and when the king was in Normandy,
then was he the mightiest man in this land.  Him he confined in
prison.  But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that
good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any
account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of
gold.  No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done
to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will,
he soon lost the limb that he played with.  He truly reigned over
England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that
there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had
it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.
(110)  The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought
castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal.  So also he subdued
Scotland by his great strength.  As to Normandy, that was his
native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine;
and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won
Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons.  Assuredly in his
time had men much distress, and very many sorrows.  Castles he
let men build, and miserably swink the poor.  The king himself
was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of
gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his
people, for little need, by right and by unright.  He was fallen
into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal.  He made many
deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever
slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight.  As
he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved
the tall deer as if he were their father.  Likewise he decreed by
the hares, that they should go free.  His rich men bemoaned it,
and the poor men shuddered at it.  But he was so stern, that he
recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal
the king's will, if they would live, or have land, or
possessions, or even his peace.  Alas!  that any man should
presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men.  May the
Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of
his sins!  These things have we written concerning him, both good
and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and
flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to
the kingdom of heaven.  Many things may we write that were done
in this same year.  So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a
nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned
aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that
ever could be.  They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him
oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church.  It
happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads
upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their
dominion.  But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent
everywhere into each land, and desired assistance.  And they came
to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went
and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land
again, through God's assistance.  In this land also, in the same
year, died many rich men; Stigand, Bishop of Chichester, and the
Abbot of St. Augustine, and the Abbot of Bath, and the Abbot of
Pershore, and the lord of them all, William, King of England,
that we spoke of before.  After his death his son, called William
also as the father, took to the kingdom, and was blessed to king
by Archbishop Landfranc at Westminster three days ere Michaelmas
day.  And all the men in England submitted to him, and swore
oaths to him.  This being thus done, the king went to Winchester,
and opened the treasure house, and the treasures that his father
had gathered, in gold, and in silver, and in vases, and in palls,
and in gems, and in many other valuable things that are difficult
to enumerate.  Then the king did as his father bade him ere he
was dead; he there distributed treasures for his father's soul to
each monastery that was in England; to some ten marks of gold, to
some six, to each upland (111) church sixty pence.  And into each
shire were sent a hundred pounds of money to distribute amongst
poor men for his soul.  And ere he departed, he bade that they
should release all the men that were in prison under his power.
And the king was on the midwinter in London.

A.D. 1088.  In this year was this land much stirred, and filled
with great treachery; so that the richest Frenchmen that were in
this land would betray their lord the king, and would have his
brother Robert king, who was earl in Normandy.  In this design
was engaged first Bishop Odo, and Bishop Gosfrith, and William,
Bishop of Durham.  So well did the king by the bishop [Odo] that
all England fared according to his counsel, and as he would.  And
the bishop thought to do by him as Judas Iscariot did by our
Lord.  And Earl Roger was also of this faction; and much people
was with him all Frenchmen.  This conspiracy was formed in Lent.
As soon as Easter came, then went they forth, and harrowed, and
burned, and wasted the king's farms; and they despoiled the lands
of all the men that were in the king's service.  And they each of
them went to his castle, and manned it, and provisioned it as
well as they could.  Bishop Gosfrith, and Robert the peace-
breaker, went to Bristol, and plundered it, and brought the spoil
to the castle.  Afterwards they went out of the castle, and
plundered Bath, and all the land thereabout; and all the honor
(112) of Berkeley they laid waste.  And the men that eldest were
of Hereford, and all the shire forthwith, and the men of
Shropshire, with much people of Wales, came and plundered and
burned in Worcestershire, until they came to the city itself,
which it was their design to set on fire, and then to rifle the
minster, and win the king's castle to their hands.  The worthy
Bishop Wulfstan, seeing these things, was much agitated in his
mind, because to him was betaken the custody of the castle. 
Nevertheless his hired men went out of the castle with few
attendants, and, through God's mercy and the bishop's merits,
slew or took five hundred men, and put all the others to flight.
The Bishop of Durham did all the harm that he could over all by
the north.  Roger was the name of one of them; (113) who leaped
into the castle at Norwich, and did yet the worst of all over all
that land.  Hugh also was one, who did nothing better either in
Leicestershire or in Northamptonshire.  The Bishop Odo being one,
though of the same family from which the king himself was
descended, went into Kent to his earldom, and greatly despoiled
it; and having laid waste the lands of the king and of the
archbishop withal, he brought the booty into his castle at
Rochester.  When the king understood all these things, and what
treachery they were employing against him, then was he in his
mind much agitated.  He then sent after Englishmen, described to
them his need, earnestly requested their support, and promised
them the best laws that ever before were in this land; each
unright guild he forbade, and restored to the men their woods and
chaces.  But it stood no while.  The Englishmen however went to
the assistance of the king their lord.  They advanced toward
Rochester, with a view to get possession of the Bishop Odo; for
they thought, if they had him who was at first the head of the
conspiracy, they might the better get possession of all the
others.  They came then to the castle at Tunbridge; and there
were in the castle the knights of Bishop Odo, and many others who
were resolved to hold it against the king.  But the Englishmen
advanced, and broke into the castle, and the men that were
therein agreed with the king.  The king with his army went toward
Rochester.  And they supposed that the bishop was therein; but it
was made known to the king that the bishop was gone to the castle
at Pevensea.  And the king with his army went after, and beset
the castle about with a very large force full six weeks.  During
this time the Earl of Normandy, Robert, the king's brother,
gathered a very considerable force, and thought to win England
with the support of those men that were in this land against the
king.  And he sent some of his men to this land, intending to
come himself after.  But the Englishmen that guarded the sea
lighted upon some of the men, and slew them, and drowned more
than any man could tell.  When provisions afterwards failed those
within the castle, they earnestly besought peace, and gave
themselves up to the king; and the bishop swore that he would
depart out of England, and no more come on this land, unless the
king sent after him, and that he would give up the castle at
Rochester.  Just as the bishop was going with an intention to
give up the castle, and the king had sent his men with him, then
arose the men that were in the castle, and took the bishop and
the king's men, and put them into prison.  In the castle were
some very good knights; Eustace the Young, and the three sons of
Earl Roger, and all the best born men that were in this land or
in Normandy.  When the king understood this thing, then went he
after with the army that he had there, and sent over all England.
and bade that each man that was faithful should come to him,
French and English, from sea-port and from upland.  Then came to
him much people; and he went to Rochester, and beset the castle,
until they that were therein agreed, and gave up the castle.  The
Bishop Odo with the men that were in the castle went over sea,
and the bishop thus abandoned the dignity that he had in this
land.  The king afterwards sent an army to Durham, and allowed it
to beset the castle, and the bishop agreed, and gave up the
castle, and relinquished his bishopric, and went to Normandy.
Many Frenchmen also abandoned their lands, and went over sea; and
the king gave their lands to the men that were faithful to him.

A.D. 1089.  In this year the venerable father and favourer of
monks, Archbishop Landfranc, departed this life; but we hope that
he is gone to the heavenly kingdom.  There was also over all
England much earth-stirring on the third day before the ides of
August, and it was a very late year in corn, and in every kind of
fruits, so that many men reaped their corn about Martinmas, and
yet later.

A.D. 1090.  Indiction XIII.  These things thus done, just as we
have already said above, by the king, and by his brother and by
this men, the king was considering how he might wreak his
vengeance on his brother Robert, harass him most, and win
Normandy of him.  And indeed through his craft, or through
bribery, he got possession of the castle at St. Valeri, and the
haven; and so he got possession of that at Albemarle.  And
therein he set his knights; and they did harm to the land in
harrowing and burning.  After this he got possession of more
castles in the land; and therein lodged his horsemen.  When the
Earl of Normandy, Robert, understood that his sworn men deceived
him, and gave up their castles to do him harm, then sent he to
his lord, Philip, king of the Franks; and he came to Normandy
with a large army, and the king and the earl with an immense
force beset the castle about, wherein were the men of the King of
England.  But the King William of England sent to Philip, king of
the Franks; and he for his love, or for his great treasure,
abandoned thus his subject the Earl Robert and his land; and
returned again to France, and let them so remain.  And in the
midst of these things this land was much oppressed by unlawful
exactions and by many other misfortunes.

A.D. 1091.  In this year the King William held his court at
Christmas in Westminster, and thereafter at Candlemas he went,
for the annoyance of his brother, out of England into Normandy.
Whilst he was there, their reconciliation took place, on the
condition, that the earl put into his hands Feschamp, and the
earldom of Ou, and Cherbourg; and in addition to this, that the
king's men should be secure in the castles that they had won
against the will of the earl.  And the king in return promised
him those many [castles] that their father had formerly won, and
also to reduce those that had revolted from the earl, also all
that his father had there beyond, except those that he had then
given the king, and that all those, that in England before for
the earl had lost their land, should have it again by this
treaty, and that the earl should have in England just so much as
was specified in this agreement.  And if the earl died without a
son by lawful wedlock, the king should be heir of all Normandy;
and by virtue of this same treaty, if the king died, the earl
should be heir of all England.  To this treaty swore twelve of
the best men of the king's side, and twelve of the earl's, though
it stood but a little while afterwards.  In the midst of this
treaty was Edgar Etheling deprived of the land that the earl had
before permitted him to keep in hand; and he went out of Normandy
to the king, his sister's husband, in Scotland, and to his
sister.  Whilst the King William was out of England, the King
Malcolm of Scotland came hither into England, and overran a great
deal of it, until the good men that governed this land sent an
army against him and repulsed him.  When the King William in
Normandy heard this, then prepared he his departure, and came to
England, and his brother, the Earl Robert, with him; and he soon
issued an order to collect a force both naval and military; but
the naval force, ere it could come to Scotland, perished almost
miserably, a few days before St. Michael's mass.  And the king
and his brother proceeded with the land-force; but when the King
Malcolm heard that they were resolved to seek him with an army,
he went with his force out of Scotland into Lothaine in England,
and there abode.  When the King William came near with his army,
then interceded between them Earl Robert, and Edgar Etheling, and
so made the peace of the kings, that the King Malcolm came to our
king, and did homage, (114) promising all such obedience as he
formerly paid to his father; and that he confirmed with an oath.
And the King William promised him in land and in all things
whatever he formerly had under his father.  In this settlement
was also Edgar Etheling united with the king.  And the kings then
with much satisfaction departed; yet that stood but a little
while.  And the Earl Robert tarried here full nigh until
Christmas with the king, and during this time found but little of
the truth of their agreement; and two days before that tide he
took ship in the Isle of Wight, and went into Normandy, and Edgar
Etheling with him.

A.D. 1092.  In this year the King William with a large army went
north to Carlisle, and restored the town, and reared the castle,
and drove out Dolphin that before governed the land, and set his
own men in the castle, and then returned hither southward.  And a
vast number of rustic people with wives and with cattle he sent
thither, to dwell there in order to till the land.

A.D. 1093.  In this year, during Lent, was the King William at
Glocester so sick, that he was by all reported dead.  And in his
illness he made many good promises to lead his own life aright;
to grant peace and protection to the churches of God, and never
more again with fee to sell; to have none but righteous laws
amongst his people.  The archbishopric of Canterbury, that before
remained in his own hand, he transferred to Anselm, who was
before Abbot of Bec; to Robert his chancellor the bishopric of
Lincoln; and to many minsters he gave land; but that he
afterwards took away, when he was better, and annulled all the
good laws that he promised us before.  Then after this sent the
King of Scotland, and demanded the fulfilment of the treaty that
was promised him.  And the King William cited him to Glocester,
and sent him hostages to Scotland; and Edgar Etheling,
afterwards, and the men returned, that brought him with great
dignity to the king.  But when he came to the king, he could not
be considered worthy either of our king's speech, or of the
conditions that were formerly promised him.  For this reason
therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King
Malcolm returned to Scotland.  And soon after he came home, he
gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more
hostility than behoved him; and Robert, the Earl of
Northumberland, surrounded him unawares with his men, and slew
him.  Morel of Barnborough slew him, who was the earl's steward,
and a baptismal friend (115) of King Malcolm.  With him was also
slain Edward his son; who after him should have been king, if he
had lived.  When the good Queen Margaret heard this -- her most
beloved lord and son thus betrayed she was in her mind almost
distracted to death.  She with her priests went to church, and
performed her rites, and prayed before God, that she might give
up the ghost.  And the Scots then chose (116) Dufenal to king,
Malcolm's brother, and drove out all the English that formerly
were with the King Malcolm.  When Duncan, King Malcolm's son,
heard all that had thus taken place (he was then in the King
William's court, because his father had given him as a hostage to
our king's father, and so he lived here afterwards), he came to
the king, and did such fealty as the king required at his hands;
and so with his permission went to Scotland, with all the support
that he could get of English and French, and deprived his uncle
Dufenal of the kingdom, and was received as king.  But the Scots
afterwards gathered some force together, and slew full nigh all
his men; and he himself with a few made his escape. (117) 
Afterwards they were reconciled, on the condition that he never
again brought into the land English or French.

A.D. 1094.  This year the King William held his court at
Christmas in Glocester; and messengers came to him thither from
his brother Robert of Normandy; who said that his brother
renounced all peace and conditions, unless the king would fulfil
all that they had stipulated in the treaty; and upon that he
called him forsworn and void of truth, unless he adhered to the
treaty, or went thither and explained himself there, where the
treaty was formerly made and also sworn.  Then went the king to
Hastings at Candlemas; and whilst he there abode waiting the
weather, he let hallow the minster at Battel, and deprived
Herbert Losang, the Bishop of Thetford, of his staff; and
thereafter about mid-Lent went over sea into Normandy.  After he
came, thither, he and his brother Robert, the earl, said that
they should come together in peace (and so they did), and might
be united.  Afterwards they came together with the same men that
before made the treaty, and also confirmed it by oaths; and all
the blame of breaking the treaty they threw upon the king; but he
would not confess this, nor even adhere to the treaty; and for
this reason they parted with much dissatisfaction.  And the king
afterwards won the castle at Bures, and took the earl's men
therein; some of whom he sent hither to this land.  On the other
hand the earl, with the assistance of the King of France, won the
castle at Argence, and took therein Roger of Poitou, (118) and
seven hundred of the king's knights with him; and afterwards that
at Hulme; and oft readily did either of them burn the towns of
the other, and also took men.  Then sent the king hither to this
land, and ordered twenty thousand Englishmen to be sent out to
Normandy to his assistance; but when they came to sea, they then
had orders to return, and to pay to the king's behoof the fee
that they had taken; which was half a pound each man; and they
did so.  And the earl after this, with the King of France, and
with all that he could gather together, went through the midst of
Normandy, towards Ou, where the King William was, and thought to
besiege him within; and so they advanced until they came to
Luneville.  There was the King of France through cunning turned
aside; and so afterwards all the army dispersed.  In the midst of
these things the King William sent after his brother Henry, who
was in the castle at Damfront; but because he could not go
through Normandy with security, he sent ships after him, and
Hugh, Earl of Chester.  When, however, they should have gone
towards Ou where the king was, they went to England, and came up
at Hamton, (119) on the eve of the feast of All Saints, and here
afterwards abode; and at Christmas they were in London.  In this
same year also the Welshmen gathered themselves together, and
with the French that were in Wales, or in the neighbourhood, and
had formerly seized their land, stirred up war, and broke into
many fastnesses and castles, and slew many men.  And when their
followers had increased, they divided themselves into larger
parties.  With some part of them fought Hugh, Earl of Shropshire,
(120) and put them to flight.  Nevertheless the other part of
them all this year omitted no evil that they could do.  This year
also the Scots ensnared their king, Duncan, and slew him; and
afterwards, the second time, took his uncle Dufenal to king,
through whose instruction and advice he was betrayed to death.

A.D. 1095.  In this year was the King William the first four days
of Christmas at Whitsand, and after the fourth day came hither,
and landed at Dover.  And Henry, the king's brother, abode in
this land until Lent, and then went over sea to Normandy, with
much treasure, on the king's behalf, against their brother, Earl
Robert, and frequently fought against the earl, and did him much
harm, both in land and in men.  And then at Easter held the king
his court in Winchester; and the Earl Robert of Northumberland
would not come to court.  And the king was much stirred to anger
with him for this, and sent to him, and bade him harshly, if he
would be worthy of protection, that he would come to court at
Pentecost.  In this year was Easter on the eighth day before the
calends of April; and upon Easter, on the night of the feast of
St Ambrose, that is, the second before the nones of April, (121)
nearly over all this land, and almost all the night, numerous and
manifold stars were seen to fall from heaven; not by one or two,
but so thick in succession, that no man could tell it.  Hereafter
at Pentecost was the king at Windsor, and all his council with
him, except the Earl of Northumberland; for the king would
neither give him hostages, nor own upon truth, that he might come
and go with security.  And the king therefore ordered his army,
and went against the earl to Northumberland; and soon after he
came thither, he won many and nearly all the best of the earl's
clan in a fortress, and put them into custody; and the castle at
Tinemouth he beset until he won it, and the earl's brother
therein, and all that were with him; and afterwards went to
Bamborough, and beset the earl therein.  But when the king saw
that he could not win it, then ordered he his men to make a
castle before Bamborough, and called it in his speech
"Malveisin"; that is in English, "Evil Neighbour".  And he
fortified it strongly with his men, and afterwards went
southward.  Then, soon after that the king was gone south, went
the earl one night out of Bamborough towards Tinemouth; but they
that were in the new castle were aware of him, and went after
him, and fought him, and wounded him, and afterwards took him. 
And of those that were with him some they slew, and some they
took alive.  Among these things it was made known to the king,
that the Welshmen in Wales had broken into a castle called
Montgomery, and slain the men of Earl Hugo, that should have held
it.  He therefore gave orders to levy another force immediately,
and after Michaelmas went into Wales, and shifted his forces, and
went through all that land, so that the army came all together by
All Saints to Snowdon.  But the Welsh always went before into the
mountains and the moors, that no man could come to them.  The
king then went homeward; for he saw that he could do no more
there this winter.  When the king came home again, he gave orders
to take the Earl Robert of Northumberland, and lead him to
Bamborough, and put out both his eyes, unless they that were
therein would give up the castle.  His wife held it, and Morel
who was steward, and also his relative.  Through this was the
castle then given up; and Morel was then in the king's court; and
through him were many both of the clergy and laity surrendered,
who with their counsels had conspired against the king.  The king
had before this time commanded some to be brought into prison,
and afterwards had it very strictly proclaimed over all this
country, "That all who held land of the king, as they wished to
be considered worthy of protection, should come to court at the
time appointed."  And the king commanded that the Earl Robert
should be led to Windsor, and there held in the castle.  Also in
this same year, against Easter, came the pope's nuncio hither to
this land.  This was Bishop Walter, a man of very good life, of
the town of Albano; and upon the day of Pentecost on the behalf
of Pope Urban he gave Archbishop Anselm his pall, and he received
him at his archiepiscopal stall in Canterbury.  And Bishop Walter
remained afterwards in this land a great part of the year; and
men then sent by him the Rome-scot, (122) which they had not done
for many years before.  This same year also the weather was very
unseasonable; in consequence of which throughout all this land
were all the fruits of the earth reduced to a moderate crop.

A.D. 1096.  In this year held the King William his court at
Christmas in Windsor; and William Bishop of Durham died there on
new-year's day; and on the octave of the Epiphany was the king
and all his councillors at Salisbury.  There Geoffry Bainard
challenged William of Ou, the king's relative, maintaining that
he had been in the conspiracy against the king.  And he fought
with him, and overcame him in single combat; and after he was
overcome, the king gave orders to put out his eyes, and
afterwards to emasculate him; and his steward, William by name,
who was the son of his stepmother, the king commanded to be
hanged on a gibbet.  Then was also Eoda, Earl of Champagne, the
king's son-in-law, and many others, deprived of their lands;
whilst some were led to London, and there killed.  This year
also, at Easter, there was a very great stir through all this
nation and many others, on account of Urban, who was declared
Pope, though he had nothing of a see at Rome.  And an immense
multitude went forth with their wives and children, that they
might make war upon the heathens.  Through this expedition were
the king and his brother, Earl Robert, reconciled; so that the
king went over sea, and purchased all Normandy of him, on
condition that they should be united.  And the earl afterwards
departed; and with him the Earl of Flanders, and the Earl of
Boulogne, and also many other men of rank (123).  And the Earl
Robert, and they that went with him, passed the winter in Apulia;
but of the people that went by Hungary many thousands miserably
perished there and by the way.  And many dragged themselves home
rueful and hunger-bitten on the approach of winter.  This was a
very heavy-timed year through all England, both through the
manifold tributes, and also through the very heavy-timed hunger
that severely oppressed this earth in the course of the year.  In
this year also the principal men who held this land, frequently
sent forces into Wales, and many men thereby grievously
afflicted, producing no results but destruction of men and waste
of money.

A.D. 1097.  In this year was the King William at Christmas in
Normandy; and afterwards against Easter he embarked for this
land; for that he thought to hold his court at Winchester; but he
was weather-bound until Easter-eve, when he first landed at
Arundel; and for this reason held his court at Windsor.  And
thereafter with a great army he went into Wales, and quickly
penetrated that land with his forces, through some of the Welsh
who were come to him, and were his guides; and he remained in
that country from midsummer nearly until August, and suffered
much loss there in men and in horses, and also in many other
things.  The Welshmen, after they had revolted from the king,
chose them many elders from themselves; one of whom was called
Cadwgan, (124) who was the worthiest of them, being brother's son
to King Griffin.  And when the king saw that he could do nothing
in furtherance of his will, he returned again into this land; and
soon after that he let his men build castles on the borders. 
Then upon the feast of St. Michael, the fourth day before the
nones of October, (125) appeared an uncommon star, shining in the
evening, and soon hastening to set. It (126) was seen south-west,
and the ray that stood off from it was thought very long, shining
south-east.  And it appeared on this wise nearly all the week.
Many men supposed that it was a comet.  Soon after this
Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury obtained leave (127) of the king
(though it was contrary to the wishes of the king, as men
supposed), and went over sea; because he thought that men in this
country did little according to right and after his instruction.
And the king thereafter upon St. Martin's mass went over sea into
Normandy; but whilst he was waiting for fair weather, his court
in the county where they lay, did the most harm that ever court
or army could do in a friendly and peaceable land.  This was in
all things a very heavy-timed year, and beyond measure laborious
from badness of weather, both when men attempted to till the
land, and afterwards to gather the fruits of their tilth; and
from unjust contributions they never rested.  Many counties also
that were confined to London by work, were grievously oppressed
on account of the wall that they were building about the tower,
and the bridge that was nearly all afloat, and the work of the
king's hall that they were building at Westminster; and many men
perished thereby.  Also in this same year soon after Michaelmas
went Edgar Etheling with an army through the king's assistance
into Scotland, and with hard fighting won that land, and drove
out the King Dufnal; and his nephew Edgar, who was son of King
Malcolm and of Margaret the queen, he there appointed king in
fealty to the King William; and afterwards again returned to

A.D. 1098.  In this year at Christmas was the King William in
Normandy; and Walkelin, Bishop of Winchester, and Baldwin, Abbot
of St. Edmund's, within this tide (128) both departed.  And in
this year also died Turold, Abbot of Peterborough.  In the summer
of this year also, at Finchamstead in Berkshire, a pool welled
with blood, as many true men said that should see it.  And Earl
Hugh was slain in Anglesey by foreign pirates, (129) and his
brother Robert was his heir, as he had settled it before with the
king.  Before Michaelmas the heaven was of such an hue, as if it
were burning, nearly all the night.  This was a very troublesome
year through manifold impositions; and from the abundant rains,
that ceased not all the year, nearly all the tilth in the marsh-
lands perished.

A.D. 1099.  This year was the King William at midwinter in
Normandy, and at Easter came hither to land, and at Pentecost
held his court the first time in his new building at Westminster;
and there he gave the bishopric of Durham to Ranulf his chaplain,
who had long directed and governed his councils over all England.
And soon after this he went over sea, and drove the Earl Elias
out of Maine, which he reduced under his power, and so by
Michaelmas returned to this land.  This year also, on the
festival of St. Martin, the sea-flood sprung up to such a height,
and did so much harm, as no man remembered that it ever did
before.  And this was the first day of the new moon.  And Osmond,
Bishop of Salisbury, died in Advent.

A.D. 1100.  In this year the King William held his court at
Christmas in Glocester, and at Easter in Winchester, and at
Pentecost in Westminster.  And at Pentecost was seen in Berkshire
at a certain town blood to well from the earth; as many said that
should see it.  And thereafter on the morning after Lammas day
was the King William shot in hunting, by an arrow from his own
men, and afterwards brought to Winchester, and buried in the
cathedral. (130)  This was in the thirteenth year after that he
assumed the government.  He was very harsh and severe over his
land and his men, and with all his neighbours; and very
formidable; and through the counsels of evil men, that to him
were always agreeable, and through his own avarice, he was ever
tiring this nation with an army, and with unjust contributions.
For in his days all right fell to the ground, and every wrong
rose up before God and before the world.  God's church he
humbled; and all the bishoprics and abbacies, whose elders fell
in his days, he either sold in fee, or held in his own hands, and
let for a certain sum; because he would be the heir of every man,
both of the clergy and laity; so that on the day that he fell he
had in his own hand the archbishopric of Canterbury, with the
bishopric of Winchester, and that of Salisbury, and eleven
abbacies, all let for a sum; and (though I may be tedious) all
that was loathsome to God and righteous men, all that was
customary in this land in his time.  And for this he was loathed
by nearly all his people, and odious to God, as his end
testified: -- for he departed in the midst of his
unrighteousness, without any power of repentance or recompense
for his deeds.  On the Thursday he was slain; and in the morning
afterwards buried; and after he was buried, the statesmen that
were then nigh at hand, chose his brother Henry to king.  And he
immediately (131) gave the bishopric of Winchester to William
Giffard; and afterwards went to London; and on the Sunday
following, before the altar at Westminster, he promised God and
all the people, to annul all the unrighteous acts that took place
in his brother's time, and to maintain the best laws that were
valid in any king's day before him.  And after this the Bishop of
London, Maurice, consecrated him king; and all in this land
submitted to him, and swore oaths, and became his men.  And the
king, soon after this, by the advice of those that were about
him, allowed men to take the Bishop Ranulf of Durham, and bring
him into the Tower of London, and hold him there.  Then, before
Michaelmas, came the Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury hither to
this land; as the King Henry, by the advice of his ministers had
sent after him, because he had gone out of this land for the
great wrongs that the King William did unto him.  And soon
hereafter the king took him to wife Maud, daughter of Malcolm,
King of Scotland, and of Margaret the good queen, the relative of
King Edward, and of the right royal (132) race of England.  And
on Martinmas day she was publicly given to him with much pomp at
Westminster, and the Archbishop Anselm wedded her to him, and
afterwards consecrated her queen.  And the Archbishop Thomas of
York soon hereafter died.  During the harvest of this same year
also came the Earl Robert home into Normandy, and the Earl Robert
of Flanders, Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, from Jerusalem.  And as
soon as the Earl Robert came into Normandy, he was joyfully
received by all his people; except those of the castles that were
garrisoned with the King Henry's men.  Against them he had many
contests and struggles.

A.D. 1101.  In this year at Christmas held the King Henry his
court in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester.  And soon
thereafter were the chief men in this land in a conspiracy
against the king; partly from their own great infidelity, and
also through the Earl Robert of Normandy, who with hostility
aspired to the invasion of this land.  And the king afterwards
sent ships out to sea, to thwart and impede his brother; but some
of them in the time of need fell back, and turned from the king,
and surrendered themselves to the Earl Robert.  Then at midsummer
went the king out to Pevensey with all his force against his
brother, and there awaited him.  But in the meantime came the
Earl Robert up at Portsmouth twelve nights before Lammas; and the
king with all his force came against him.  But the chief men
interceded between them, and settled the brothers on the
condition, "that the king should forego all that he held by main
strength in Normandy against the earl; and that all then in
England should have their lands again, who had lost it before
through the earl, and Earl Eustace also all his patrimony in this
land; and that the Earl Robert every year should receive from
England three thousand marks of silver; and particularly, that
whichever of the brothers should survive the other, he should be
heir of all England and also of Normandy, except the deceased
left an heir by lawful wedlock."  And this twelve men of the
highest rank on either side then confirmed with an oath.  And the
earl afterwards remained in this land till after Michaelmas; and
his men did much harm wherever they went, the while that the earl
continued in this land.  This year also the Bishop Ranulf at
Candlemas burst out of the Tower of London by night, where he was
in confinement, and went into Normandy; through whose contrivance
and instigation mostly the Earl Robert this year sought this land
with hostility.

(93) i.e. -- threw off their allegiance to the Norman usurper,
     and became voluntary outlaws.  The habits of these outlaws,
     or, at least, of their imitators and descendants in the next
     century, are well described in the romance of "Ivanhoe".
(94) The author of the Gallo-Norman poem printed by Sparke
     elevates his diction to a higher tone, when describing the
     feasts of this same Hereward, whom he calls "le uthlage
(95) Or much "coin"; many "scaettae"; such being the denomination
     of the silver money of the Saxons.
(96) Florence of Worcester and those who follow him say that
     William proceeded as far as Abernethy; where Malcolm met
     him, and surrendered to him.
(97) Whence he sailed to Bretagne, according to Flor. S. Dunelm,
     etc.; but according to Henry of Huntingdon he fled directly
     to Denmark, returning afterwards with Cnute and Hacco, who
     invaded England With a fleet of 200 sail.
(98) i.e. Earl Waltheof.
(99) This notice of St. Petronilla, whose name and existence seem
     scarcely to have been known to the Latin historians, we owe
     exclusively to the valuable MS. "Cotton Tiberius" B lv.  Yet
     if ever female saint deserved to be commemorated as a
     conspicuous example of early piety and christian zeal, it
     must be Petronilla.
(100) The brevity of our Chronicle here, and in the two following
     years, in consequence of the termination of "Cotton
     Tiberius" B iv., is remarkable.  From the year 1083 it
     assumes a character more decidedly Anglo-Norman.
(101) i.e. In the service; by teaching them a new-fangled chant,
     brought from Feschamp in Normandy, instead of that to which
     they had been accustomed, and which is called the Gregorian
(102) Literally, "afeared of them" -- i.e. terrified by them.
(103) Probably along the open galleries in the upper story of the
(104) "Slaegan", in its first sense, signifies "to strike 
     violently"; whence the term "sledge-hammer".  This
     consideration will remove the supposed pleonasm in the Saxon
     phrase, which is here literally translated.
(105) "Gild," Sax.; which in this instance was a land-tax of one
     shilling to a yardland.
(106) -- and of Clave Kyrre, King of Norway.  Vid. "Antiq.
(107) Because there was a mutiny in the Danish fleet; which was
     carried to such a height, that the king, after his return to
     Denmark, was slain by his own subjects.  Vid. "Antiq. Celto-
     Scand", also our "Chronicle" A.D. 1087.
(108) i.e. a fourth part of an acre.
(109) At Winchester; where the king held his court at Easter in
     the following year; and the survey was accordingly deposited
     there; whence it was called "Rotulus Wintoniae", and "Liber
(110) An evident allusion to the compilation of Doomsday book,
     already described in A.D. 1085.
(111) Uppe-land, Sax. -- i.e. village-church.
(112) i.e. jurisdiction.  We have adopted the modern title of the
     district; but the Saxon term occurs in many of the ancient
     evidences of Berkeley Castle.
(113) i.e. of the conspirators.
(114) Literally "became his man" -- "Ic becom eowr man" was the
     formula of doing homage.
(115) Literally a "gossip"; but such are the changes which words
     undergo in their meaning as well as in their form, that a
     title of honour formerly implying a spiritual relationship
     in God, is now applied only to those whose conversation
     resembles the contemptible tittle-tattle of a Christening.
(116) From this expression it is evident, that though preference
     was naturally and properly given to hereditary claims, the
     monarchy of Scotland, as well as of England, was in
     principle "elective".  The doctrine of hereditary, of
     divine, of indefeasible "right", is of modern growth.
(117) See the following year towards the end, where Duncan is
     said to be slain.
(118) Peitevin, which is the connecting link between
     "Pictaviensem" and "Poitou".
(119) Now called Southampton, to distinguish it from Northampton,
     but the common people in both neighbourhoods generally say
     "Hamton" to this day (1823).
(120) The title is now Earl of Shrewsbury.
(121) The fourth of April.  Vid. "Ord. Vit."
(122) Commonly called "Peter-pence".
(123) Literally "head-men, or chiefs".  The term is still
     retained with a slight variation in the north of Europe, as
     the "hetman" Platoff of celebrated memory.
(124) This name is now written, improperly, Cadogan; though the
     ancient pronunciation continues. "Cadung", "Ann. Wav."
     erroneously, perhaps, for "Cadugn".
(125) It was evidently, therefore, not on Michaelmas day, but
     during the continuance of the mass or festival which was
     celebrated till the octave following.
(126) In the original "he"; so that the Saxons agreed with the
     Greeks and Romans with respect to the gender of a comet.
(127) Literally "took leave": hence the modern phrase to signify
     the departure of one person from another, which in feudal
     times could not be done without leave or permission formally
(128) That is, within the twelve days after Christmas, or the
     interval between Christmas day, properly called the
     Nativity, and the Epiphany, the whole of which was called
     Christmas-tide or Yule-tide, and was dedicated to feasting
     and mirth.
(129) The King of Norway and his men.  "Vid. Flor."
(130) His monument is still to be seen there, a plain gravestone
     of black marble, of the common shape called "dos d'ane";
     such as are now frequently seen, though of inferior
     materials, in the churchyards of villages; and are only one
     remove from the grassy sod.
(131) i.e. before he left Winchester for London; literally
     "there-right" -- an expression still used in many parts of
     England.  Neither does the word "directly", which in its
     turn has almost become too vulgar to be used, nor its
     substitute, "immediately", which has nearly superseded it,
     appear to answer the purpose so well as the Saxon, which is
     equally expressive with the French "sur le champ".
(132) This expression shows the adherence of the writer to the
     Saxon line of kings, and his consequent satisfaction in
     recording this alliance of Henry with the daughter of
     Margaret of Scotland.