The Online 
Medieval and Classical Library

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Part 1: A.D. 1 - 748

Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #17

The island Britain (1) is 800 miles long, and 200 miles broad.
And there are in the island five nations; English, Welsh (or
British) (2), Scottish, Pictish, and Latin.  The first
inhabitants were the Britons, who came from Armenia (3), and
first peopled Britain southward.  Then happened it, that the
Picts came south from Scythia, with long ships, not many; and,
landing first in the northern part of Ireland, they told the
Scots that they must dwell there.  But they would not give them
leave; for the Scots told them that they could not all dwell
there together; "But," said the Scots, "we can nevertheless give
you advice.  We know another island here to the east.  There you
may dwell, if you will; and whosoever withstandeth you, we will
assist you, that you may gain it."  Then went the Picts and
entered this land northward.  Southward the Britons possessed it,
as we before said.  And the Picts obtained wives of the Scots, on
condition that they chose their kings always on the female side
(4); which they have continued to do, so long since.  And it
happened, in the run of years, that some party of Scots went from
Ireland into Britain, and acquired some portion of this land.
Their leader was called Reoda (5), from whom they are named
Dalreodi (or Dalreathians).

Sixty winters ere that Christ was born, Caius Julius, emperor of
the Romans, with eighty ships sought Britain.  There he was first
beaten in a dreadful fight, and lost a great part of his army.
Then he let his army abide with the Scots (6), and went south
into Gaul.  There he gathered six hundred ships, with which he
went back into Britain.  When they first rushed together,
Caesar's tribune, whose name was Labienus (7), was slain.  Then
took the Welsh sharp piles, and drove them with great clubs into
the water, at a certain ford of the river called Thames.  When
the Romans found that, they would not go over the ford.  Then
fled the Britons to the fastnesses of the woods; and Caesar,
having after much fighting gained many of the chief towns, went
back into Gaul (8).

((B.C. 60.  Before the incarnation of Christ sixty years, Gaius
Julius the emperor, first of the Romans, sought the land of
Britain; and he crushed the Britons in battle, and overcame them;
and nevertheless he was unable to gain any empire there.))

A.D. 1.  Octavianus reigned fifty-six winters; and in the forty-
second year of his reign Christ was born.  Then three astrologers
from the east came to worship Christ; and the children in
Bethlehem were slain by Herod in persecution of Christ.

A.D. 3.  This year died Herod, stabbed by his own hand; and
Archelaus his son succeeded him.  The child Christ was also this
year brought back again from Egypt.

A.D. 6.  From the beginning of the world to this year were agone
five thousand and two hundred winters.

A.D. 11.  This year Herod the son of Antipater undertook the
government in Judea.

A.D. 12.  This year Philip and Herod divided Judea into four

((A.D. 12.  This year Judea was divided into four tetrarchies.))

A.D. 16.  This year Tiberius succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 26.  This year Pilate began to reign over the Jews.

A.D. 30.  This year was Christ baptized; and Peter and Andrew
were converted, together with James, and John, and Philip, and
all the twelve apostles.

A.D. 33.  This year was Christ crucified; (9) about five thousand
two hundred and twenty six winters from the beginning of the
world. (10)

A.D. 34.  This year was St. Paul converted, and St. Stephen

A.D. 35.  This year the blessed Peter the apostle settled an
episcopal see in the city of Antioch.

A.D. 37.  This year (11) Pilate slew himself with his own hand.

A.D. 39.  This year Caius undertook the empire.

A.D. 44.  This year the blessed Peter the apostle settled an
episcopal see at Rome; and James, the brother of John, was slain
by Herod.

A.D. 45.  This year died Herod, who slew James one year ere his
own death.

A.D. 46.  This year Claudius, the second of the Roman emperors
who invaded Britain, took the greater part of the island into his
power, and added the Orkneys to rite dominion of the Romans.
This was in the fourth year of his reign.  And in the same year
(12) happened the great famine in Syria which Luke mentions in
the book called "The Acts of the Apostles".  After Claudius Nero
succeeded to the empire, who almost lost the island Britain
through his incapacity.

((A.D. 46.  This year the Emperor Claudius came to Britain, and
subdued a large part of the island; and he also added the island
of Orkney to the dominion of the Romans.))

A.D. 47.  This year Mark, the evangelist in Egypt beginneth to
write the gospel.

((A.D. 47.  This was in the fourth year of his reign, and in this
same year was the great famine in Syria which Luke speaks of in
the book called "Actus Apostolorum".))

((A.D. 47.  This year Claudius, king of the Romans, went with an
army into Britain, and subdued the island, and subjected all the
Picts and Welsh to the rule of the Romans.))

A.D. 50.  This year Paul was sent bound to Rome.

A.D. 62.  This year James, the brother of Christ, suffered.

A.D. 63.  This year Mark the evangelist departed this life.

A.D. 69.  This year Peter and Paul suffered.

A.D. 70.  This year Vespasian undertook the empire.

A.D. 71.  This year Titus, son of Vespasian, slew in Jerusalem
eleven hundred thousand Jews.

A.D. 81.  This year Titus came to the empire, after Vespasian,
who said that he considered the day lost in which he did no good.

A.D. 83.  This year Domitian, the brother of Titus, assumed the

A.D. 84.  This year John the evangelist in the island Patmos
wrote the book called "The Apocalypse".

A.D. 90.  This year Simon, the apostle, a relation of Christ, was
crucified: and John the evangelist rested at Ephesus.

A.D. 92.  This year died Pope Clement.

A.D. 110.  This year Bishop Ignatius suffered.

A.D. 116.  This year Hadrian the Caesar began to reign.

A.D. 145.  This year Marcus Antoninus and Aurelius his brother
succeeded to the empire.

((A.D. 167.  This year Eleutherius succeeded to the popedom, and
held it fifteen years; and in the same year Lucius, king of the
Britons, sent and begged baptism of him.  And he soon sent it
him, and they continued in the true faith until the time of

A.D. 189.  This year Severus came to the empire; and went with
his army into Britain, and subdued in battle a great part of the
island.  Then wrought he a mound of turf, with a broad wall
thereupon, from sea to sea, for the defence of the Britons.  He
reigned seventeen years; and then ended his days at York.  His
son Bassianus succeeded him in the empire.  His other son, who
perished, was called Geta.  This year Eleutherius undertook the
bishopric of Rome, and held it honourably for fifteen winters.
To him Lucius, king of the Britons, sent letters, and prayed that
he might be made a Christian.  He obtained his request; and they
continued afterwards in the right belief until the reign of

A.D. 199.  In this year was found the holy rood. (13)

A.D. 283.  This year suffered Saint Alban the Martyr.

A.D. 343.  This year died St. Nicolaus.

A.D. 379.  This year Gratian succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 381.  This year Maximus the Caesar came to the empire.  He
was born in the land of Britain, whence he passed over into Gaul.
He there slew the Emperor Gratian; and drove his brother, whose
name was Valentinian, from his country (Italy).  The same
Valentinian afterwards collected an army, and slew Maximus;
whereby he gained the empire.  About this time arose the error of
Pelagius over the world.

A.D. 418.  This year the Romans collected all the hoards of gold
(14) that were in Britain; and some they hid in the earth, so
that no man afterwards might find them, and some they carried
away with them into Gaul.

A.D. 423.  This year Theodosius the younger succeeded to the

A.D. 429.  This year Bishop Palladius was sent from Pope
Celesrinus to the Scots, that he might establish their faith.

A.D. 430.  This year Patricius was sent from Pope Celestinus to
preach baptism to the Scots.

((A.D. 430.  This year Patrick was sent by Pope Celestine to
preach baptism to the Scots.))

A.D. 435.  This year the Goths sacked the city of Rome; and never
since have the Romans reigned in Britain.  This was about eleven
hundred and ten winters after it was built.  They reigned
altogether in Britain four hundred and seventy winters since
Gaius Julius first sought that land.

A.D. 443.  This year sent the Britons over sea to Rome, and
begged assistance against the Picts; but they had none, for the
Romans were at war with Atila, king of the Huns.  Then sent they
to the Angles, and requested the same from the nobles of that

A.D. 444.  This year died St. Martin.

A.D. 448.  This year John the Baptist showed his head to two
monks, who came from the eastern country to Jerusalem for the
sake of prayer, in the place that whilom was the palace of Herod.

A.D. 449.  This year Marcian and Valentinian assumed the empire,
and reigned seven winters.  In their days Hengest and Horsa,
invited by Wurtgern, king of the Britons to his assistance,
landed in Britain in a place that is called Ipwinesfleet; first
of all to support the Britons, but they afterwards fought against
them.  The king directed them to fight against the Picts; and
they did so; and obtained the victory wheresoever they came.
They then sent to the Angles, and desired them to send more
assistance.  They described the worthlessness of the Britons, and
the richness of the land.  They then sent them greater support.
Then came the men from three powers of Germany; the Old Saxons,
the Angles, and the Jutes.  From the Jutes are descended the men
of Kent, the Wightwarians (that is, the tribe that now dwelleth
in the Isle of Wight), and that kindred in Wessex that men yet
call the kindred of the Jutes.  From the Old Saxons came the
people of Essex and Sussex and Wessex.  From Anglia, which has
ever since remained waste between the Jutes and the Saxons, came
the East Angles, the Middle Angles, the Mercians, and all of
those north of the Humber.  Their leaders were two brothers,
Hengest and Horsa; who were the sons of Wihtgils; Wihtgils was
the son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden.  From this
Woden arose all our royal kindred, and that of the Southumbrians

((A.D. 449.  And in their days Vortigern invited the Angles
thither, and they came to Britain in three ceols, at the place
called Wippidsfleet.))

A.D. 455.  This year Hengest and Horsa fought with Wurtgern the
king on the spot that is called Aylesford.  His brother Horsa
being there slain, Hengest afterwards took to the kingdom with
his son Esc.

A.D. 457.  This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Britons on
the spot that is called Crayford, and there slew four thousand
men.  The Britons then forsook the land of Kent, and in great
consternation fled to London.

A.D. 465.  This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh, nigh
Wippedfleet; and there slew twelve leaders, all Welsh.  On their
side a thane was there slain, whose name was Wipped.

A.D. 473.  This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh, and
took immense Booty.  And the Welsh fled from the English like

A.D. 477.  This year came Ella to Britain, with his three sons,
Cymen, and Wlenking, and Cissa, in three ships; landing at a
place that is called Cymenshore.  There they slew many of the
Welsh; and some in flight they drove into the wood that is called

A.D. 482.  This year the blessed Abbot Benedict shone in this
world, by the splendour of those virtues which the blessed
Gregory records in the book of Dialogues.

A.D. 485.  This year Ella fought with the Welsh nigh Mecred's-

A.D. 488.  This year Esc succeeded to the kingdom; and was king
of the men of Kent twenty-four winters.

A.D. 490.  This year Ella and Cissa besieged the city of Andred,
and slew all that were therein; nor was one Briten left there

A.D. 495.  This year came two leaders into Britain, Cerdic and
Cynric his son, with five ships, at a place that is called
Cerdic's-ore.  And they fought with the Welsh the same day.  Then
he died, and his son Cynric succeeded to the government, and held
it six and twenty winters.  Then he died; and Ceawlin, his son,
succeeded, who reigned seventeen years.  Then he died; and Ceol
succeeded to the government, and reigned five years.  When he
died, Ceolwulf, his brother, succeeded, and reigned seventeen
years.  Their kin goeth to Cerdic.  Then succeeded Cynebils,
Ceolwulf's brother's son, to the kingdom; and reigned one and
thirty winters.  And he first of West-Saxon kings received
baptism.  Then succeeded Cenwall, who was the son of Cynegils,
and reigned one and thirty winters.  Then held Sexburga, his
queen, the government one year after him.  Then succeeded Escwine
to the kingdom, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and held it two years.
Then succeeded Centwine, the son of Cynegils, to the kingdom of
the West-Saxons, and reigned nine years.  Then succeeded Ceadwall
to the government, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and held it three
years.  Then succeeded Ina to the kingdom of the West-Saxons,
whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned thirty-seven winters.
Then succeeded Ethelheard, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned
sixteen years.  Then succeeded Cuthred, whose kin goeth to
Cerdic, and reigned sixteen winters.  Then succeeded Sigebriht,
whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned one year.  Then succeeded
Cynwulf, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned one and thirty
winters.  Then succeeded Brihtric, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and
reigned sixteen years.  Then succeeded Egbert to the kingdom, and
held it seven and thirty winters, and seven months.  Then
succeeded Ethelwulf, his son, and reigned eighteen years and a
half.  Ethelwulf was the son of Egbert, Egbert of Ealmund,
Ealmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild, Ingild of Cenred
(Ina of Cenred, Cuthburga of Cenred, and Cwenburga of Cenred),
Cenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cuthwulf, Cuthwulf of Cuthwine,
Cuthwine of Celm, Celm of Cynric, Cynric of Creoda, Creoda of
Cerdic.  Then succeeded Ethelbald, the son of Ethelwulf, to the
kingdom, and held it five years.  Then succeeded Ethelbert, his
brother, and reigned five years.  Then succeeded Ethelred, his
brother, to the kingdom, and held it five years.  Then succeeded
Alfred, their brother, to the government.  And then had elapsed
of his age three and twenty winters, and three hundred and
ninety-six winters from the time when his kindred first gained
the land of Wessex from the Welsh.  And he held the kingdom a
year and a half less than thirty winters.  Then succeeded Edward,
the son of Alfred, and reigned twenty-four winters.  When he
died, then succeeded Athelstan, his son, and reigned fourteen
years and seven weeks and three days.  Then succeeded Edmund, his
brother, and reigned six years and a half, wanting two nights.
Then succeeded Edred, his brother, and reigned nine years and six
weeks.  Then succeeded Edwy, the son of Edmund, and reigned three
years and thirty-six weeks, wanting two days.  When he died, then
succeeded Edgar, his brother, and reigned sixteen years and eight
weeks and two nights.  When he died, then succeeded Edward, the
son of Edgar, and reigned --

A.D. 501.  This year Porta and his two sons, Beda and Mela, came
into Britain, with two ships, at a place called Portsmouth.  They
soon landed, and slew on the spot a young Briton of very high

A.D. 508.  This year Cerdic and Cynric slew a British king, whose
name was Natanleod, and five thousand men with him.  After this
was the land named Netley, from him, as far as Charford.

A.D. 509.  This year St. Benedict, the abbot, father of all the
monks, (16) ascended to heaven.

A.D. 514.  This year came the West-Saxons into Britain, with
three ships, at the place that is called Cerdic's-ore.  And Stuff
and Wihtgar fought with the Britons, and put them to flight.

A.D. 519.  This year Cerdic and Cynric undertook the government
of the West-Saxons; the same year they fought with the Britons at
a place now called Charford.  From that day have reigned the
children of the West-Saxon kings.

A.D. 527.  This year Cerdic and Cynric fought with the Britons in
the place that is called Cerdic's-ley.

A.D. 530.  This year Cerdic and Cynric took the isle of Wight,
and slew many men in Carisbrook.

A.D. 534.  This year died Cerdic, the first king of the West-
Saxons.  Cynric his son succeeded to the government, and reigned
afterwards twenty-six winters.  And they gave to their two
nephews, Stuff and Wihtgar, the whole of the Isle of Wight.

A.D. 538.  This year the sun was eclipsed, fourteen days before
the calends of March, from before morning until nine.

A.D. 540.  This year the sun was eclipsed on the twelfth day
before the calends of July; and the stars showed themselves full
nigh half an hour over nine.

A.D. 544.  This year died Wihtgar; and men buried him at

A.D. 547.  This year Ida began his reign; from whom first arose
the royal kindred of the Northumbrians.  Ida was the son of
Eoppa, Eoppa of Esa, Esa of Ingwy, Ingwy of Angenwit, Angenwit of
Alloc, Alloc of Bennoc, Bennoc of Brand, Brand of Balday, Balday
of Woden.  Woden of Fritholaf, Fritholaf of Frithowulf,
Frithowulf of Finn, Finn of Godolph, Godolph of Geata. Ida
reigned twelve years.  He built Bamburgh-Castle, which was first
surrounded with a hedge, and afterwards with a wall.

A.D. 552.  This year Cynric fought with the Britons on the spot
that is called Sarum, and put them to flight.  Cerdic was the
father of Cynric, Cerdic was the son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla,
Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wye, Wye of Frewin, Frewin of Frithgar,
Frithgar of Brand, Brand of Balday, Balday of Woden.  In this
year Ethelbert, the son of Ermenric, was born, who on the two and
thirtieth year of his reign received the rite of baptism, the
first of all the kings in Britain.

A.D. 556.  This year Cynric and Ceawlin fought with the Britons
at Beranbury.

A.D. 560.  This year Ceawlin undertook the government of the
West-Saxons; and Ella, on the death of Ida, that of the
Northumbrians; each of whom reigned thirty winters.  Ella was the
son of Iff, Iff of Usfrey, Usfrey of Wilgis, Wilgis of
Westerfalcon, Westerfalcon of Seafowl, Seafowl of Sebbald,
Sebbald of Sigeat, Sigeat of Swaddy, Swaddy of Seagirt, Seagar of
Waddy, Waddy of Woden, Woden of Frithowulf.  This year Ethelbert
came to the kingdom of the Cantuarians, and held it fifty-three
winters.  In his days the holy Pope Gregory sent us baptism.
That was in the two and thirtieth year of his reign.  And
Columba, the mass-priest, came to the Picts, and converted them
to the belief of Christ.  They are the dwellers by the northern
moors.  And their king gave him the island of Hii, consisting of
five hides, as they say, where Columba built a monastary.  There
he was abbot two and thirty winters; and there he died, when he
was seventy-seven years old.  The place his successors yet have.
The Southern Picts were long before baptized by Bishop Ninnia,
who was taught at Rome.  His church or monastery is at Hwiterne,
hallowed in the name of St. Martin, where he resteth with many
holy men.  Now, therefore, shall there be ever in Hii an abbot,
and no bishop; and to him shall be subject all the bishops of the
Scots; because Columba was an abbot -- no bishop.

((A.D. 565.  This year Columba the presbyter came from the Scots
among the Britons, to instruct the Picts, and he built a
monastery in the island of Hii.))

A.D. 568.  This year Ceawlin, and Cutha the brother of Ceawlin,
fought with Ethelbert, and pursued him into Kent.  And they slew
two aldermen at Wimbledon, Oslake and Cnebba.

A.D. 571.  This year Cuthulf fought with the Britons at Bedford,
and took four towns, Lenbury, Aylesbury, Benson, and Ensham.  And
this same year he died.

A.D. 577.  This year Cuthwin and Ceawlin fought with the Britons,
and slew three kings, Commail, and Condida, and Farinmail, on the
spot that is called Derham, and took from them three cities,
Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath.

A.D. 583.  This year Mauricius succeeded to the empire of the

A.D. 584.  This year Ceawlin and Cutha fought with the Britons on
the spot that is called Fretherne.  There Cutha was slain.  And
Ceawlin took many towns, as well as immense booty and wealth.  He
then retreated to his own people.

A.D. 588.  This year died King Ella; and Ethelric reigned after
him five years.

A.D. 591.  This year there was a great slaughter of Britons at
Wanborough; Ceawlin was driven from his kingdom, and Ceolric
reigned six years.

A.D. 592.  This year Gregory succeeded to the papacy at Rome.

A.D. 593.  This year died Ceawlin, and Cwichelm, and Cryda; and
Ethelfrith succeeded to the kingdom of the Northumbrians.  He was
the son of Ethelric; Ethelric of Ida.

A.D. 596.  This year Pope Gregory sent Augustine to Britain with
very many monks, to preach the word of God to the English people.

A.D. 597.  This year began Ceolwulf to reign over the West-
Saxons; and he constantly fought and conquered, either with the
Angles, or the Welsh, or the Picts, or the Scots.  He was the son
of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa,
Elesa of Gewis, Gewis of Wye, Wye of Frewin, Frewin of Frithgar,
Frithgar of Brand, Brand of Balday, and Balday of Woden.  This
year came Augustine and his companions to England. (17)

A.D. 601.  This year Pope Gregory sent the pall to Archbishop
Augustine in Britain, with very many learned doctors to assist
him; and Bishop Paulinus converted Edwin, king of the
Northumbrians, to baptism.

A.D. 603. This year Aeden, king of the Scots, fought with the
Dalreathians, and with Ethelfrith, king of the Northumbrians, at
Theakstone; where he lost almost all his army.  Theobald also,
brother of Ethelfrith, with his whole armament, was slain.  None
of the Scottish kings durst afterwards bring an army against this
nation.  Hering, the son of Hussa, led the army thither.

((A.D. 603.  This year Aethan, King of the Scots, fought against
the Dalreods and against Ethelfrith, king of the North-humbrians,
at Daegsanstane [Dawston?], and they slew almost all his army.
There Theodbald, Ethelfrith's brother, was slain with all his
band.  Since then no king of the Scots has dared to lead an army
against this nation.  Hering, the son of Hussa, led the enemy

A.D. 604.  This year Augustine consecrated two bishops, Mellitus
and Justus.  Mellitus he sent to preach baptism to the East-
Saxons.  Their king was called Seabert, the son of Ricola,
Ethelbert's sister, whom Ethelbert placed there as king.
Ethelbert also gave Mellitus the bishopric of London; and to
Justus he gave the bishopric of Rochester, which is twenty-four
miles from Canterbury.

((A.D. 604.  This year Augustine consecrated two bishops,
Mellitus and Justus.  He sent Mellitus to preach baptism to the
East-Saxons, whose king was called Sebert, son of Ricole, the
sister of Ethelbert, and whom Ethelbert had there appointed king.
And Ethelbert gave Mellitus a bishop's see in London, and to
Justus he gave Rochester, which is twenty-four miles from

A.D. 606.  This year died Gregory; about ten years since he sent
us baptism.  His father was called Gordianus, and his mother

A.D. 607.  This year Ceolwulf fought with the South-Saxons.  And
Ethelfrith led his army to Chester; where he slew an innumerable
host of the Welsh; and so was fulfilled the prophecy of
Augustine, wherein he saith "If the Welsh will not have peace
with us, they shall perish at the hands of the Saxons."  There
were also slain two hundred priests, (18) who came thither to
pray for the army of the Welsh.  Their leader was called
Brocmail, who with some fifty men escaped thence.

A.D. 611.  This year Cynegils succeeded to the government in
Wessex, and held it one and thirty winters.  Cynegils was the son
of Ceol, Ceol of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric.

A.D. 614.  This year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought at Bampton, and
slew two thousand and forty-six of the Welsh.

A.D. 616.  This year died Ethelbert, king of Kent, the first of
English kings that received baptism: he was the son of Ermenric.
He reigned fifty-six winters, and was succeeded by his son
Eadbald.  And in this same year had elapsed from the beginning of
the world five thousand six hundred and eighteen winters.  This
Eadbald renounced his baptism, and lived in a heathen manner; so
that he took to wife the relict of his father.  Then Laurentius,
who was archbishop in Kent, meant to depart southward over sea,
and abandon everything.  But there came to him in the night the
apostle Peter, and severely chastised him, (19) because he would
so desert the flock of God.  And he charged him to go to the
king, and teach him the right belief.  And he did so; and the
king returned to the right belief.  In this king's days the same
Laurentius, who was archbishop in Kent after Augustine, departed
this life on the second of February, and was buried near
Augustine.  The holy Augustine in his lifetime invested him
bishop, to the end that the church of Christ, which yet was new
in England, should at no time after his decease be without an
archbishop.  After him Mellitus, who was first Bishop of London,
succeeded to the archbishopric.  The people of London, where
Mellitus was before, were then heathens: and within five winters
of this time, during the reign of Eadbald, Mellitus died.  To him
succeeded Justus, who was Bishop of Rochester, whereto he
consecrated Romanus bishop.

((A.D. 616.  In that time Laurentius was archbishop, and for the
sorrowfulness which he had on account of the king's unbelief he
was minded to forsake this country entirely, and go over sea; but
St. Peter the apostle scourged him sorely one night, because he
wished thus to forsake the flock of God, and commanded him to
teach boldly the true faith to the king; and he did so, and the
king turned to the right (faith).  In the days of this same king,
Eadbald, this Laurentius died.  The holy Augustine, while yet in
sound health, ordained him bishop, in order that the community of
Christ, which was yet new in England, should not after his
decease be at any time without an archbishop.  After him
Mellitus, who had been previously Bishop of London, succeeded to
the archbishopric.  And within five years of the decease of
Laurentius, while Eadbald still reigned, Mellitus departed to

A.D. 617.  This year was Ethelfrith, king of the Northumbrians,
slain by Redwald, king of the East-Angles; and Edwin, the son of
Ella, having succeeded to the kingdom, subdued all Britain,
except the men of Kent alone, and drove out the Ethelings, the
sons of Ethelfrith, namely, Enfrid. Oswald, Oswy, Oslac, Oswood.
Oslaf, and Offa.

A.D. 624.  This year died Archbishop Mellitus.

A.D. 625.  This year Paulinus was invested bishop of the
Northumbrians, by Archbishop Justus, on the twelfth day before
the calends of August.

((A.D. 625.  This year Archbishop Justus consecrated Paulinus
bishop of the North-humbrians.))

A.D. 626.  This year came Eamer from Cwichelm, king of the West-
Saxons, with a design to assassinate King Edwin; but he killed
Lilla his thane, and Forthere, and wounded the king.  The same
night a daughter was born to Edwin, whose name was Eanfleda.
Then promised the king to Paulinus, that he would devote his
daughter to God, if he would procure at the hand of God, that he
might destroy his enemy, who had sent the assassin to him.  He
then advanced against the West-Saxons with an army, felled on the
spot five kings, and slew many of their men.  This year Eanfleda,
the daughter of King Edwin, was baptized, on the holy eve of
Pentecost.  And the king within twelve months was baptized, at
Easter, with all his people.  Easter was then on the twelfth of
April.  This was done at York, where he had ordered a church to
be built of timber, which was hallowed in the name of St. Peter.
There the king gave the bishopric to Paulinus; and there he
afterwards ordered a larger church to be built of stone.  This
year Penda began to reign; and reigned thirty winters.  He had
seen fifty winters when he began to reign.  Penda was the son of
Wybba, Wybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba,
Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of
Offa, Offa of Wearmund, Wearmund of Whitley, Whitley of Woden.

A.D. 627.  This year was King Edwin baptized at Easter, with all
his people, by Paulinus, who also preached baptism in Lindsey,
where the first person who believed was a certain rich man, of
the name of Bleek, with all his people.  At this time Honorius
succeeded Boniface in the papacy, and sent hither to Paulinus the
pall; and Archbishop Justus having departed this life on the
tenth of November, Honorius was consecrated at Lincoln Archbishop
of Canterbury by Paulinus; and Pope Honorius sent him the pall.
And he sent an injunction to the Scots, that they should return
to the right celebration of Easter.

((A.D. 627.  This year, at Easter, Paulinus baptized Edwin king
of the North-humbrians, with his people; and earlier within the
same year, at Pentecost, he had baptized Eanfled, daughter of the
same king.))

A.D. 628.  This year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought with Penda at
Cirencester, and afterwards entered into a treaty there.

A.D. 632.  This year was Orpwald baptized.

A.D. 633.  This year King Edwin was slain by Cadwalla and Penda,
on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October.  He reigned
seventeen years.  His son Osfrid was also slain with him.  After
this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the
Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga, the
relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent.  Eadbald and Honorius
received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of
Rochester, where he continued to his death.

A.D. 634.  This year Osric, whom Paulinus baptized, succeeded to
the government of Deira.  He was the son of Elfric, the uncle of
Edwin.  And to Bernicia succeeded Eanfrith, son of Ethelfrith.
This year also Bishop Birinus first preached baptism to the West-
Saxons, under King Cynegils.  The said Birinus went thither by
the command of Pope Honorius; and he was bishop there to the end
of his life.  Oswald also this year succeeded to the government
of the Northumbrians, and reigned nine winters.  The ninth year
was assigned to him on account of the heathenism in which those
lived who reigned that one year betwixt him and Edwin.

A.D. 635.  This year King Cynegils was baptized by Bishop Birinus
at Dorchester; and Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was his

A.D. 636.  This year King Cwichelm was baptized at Dorchester,
and died the same year.  Bishop Felix also preached to the East-
Angles the belief of Christ.

A.D. 639.  This year Birinus baptized King Cuthred at Dorchester,
and received him as his son.

A.D. 640.  This year died Eadbald, King of Kent, after a reign of
twenty-five winters.  He had two sons, Ermenred and Erkenbert;
and Erkenbert reigned there after his father.  He overturned all
the idols in the kingdom, and first of English kings appointed a
fast before Easter.  His daughter was called Ercongota -- holy
damsel of an illustrious sire!  whose mother was Sexburga, the
daughter of Anna, king of the East-Angles.  Ermenred also begat
two sons, who were afterwards martyred by Thunnor.

A.D. 642.  This year Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain
by Penda, king of the Southumbrians, at Mirfield, on the fifth
day of August; and his body was buried at Bardney.  His holiness
and miracles were afterwards displayed on manifold occasions
throughout this island; and his hands remain still uncorrupted at
Barnburgh.  The same year in which Oswald was slain, Oswy his
brother succeeded to the government of the Northumbrians, and
reigned two less than thirty years.

A.D. 643.  This year Kenwal succeeded to the kingdom of the West-
Saxons, and held it one and thirty winters.  This Kenwal ordered
the old (20) church at Winchester to be built in the name of St.
Peter.  He was the son of Cynegils.

A.D. 644.  This year died at Rochester, on the tenth of October,
Paulinus, who was first Archbishop at York, and afterwards at
Rochester.  He was bishop nineteen winters, two months, and one
and twenty days.  This year the son of Oswy's uncle (Oswin), the
son of Osric, assumed the government of Deira, and reigned seven

A.D. 645.  This year King Kenwal was driven from his dominion by
King Penda.

A.D. 646.  This year King Kenwal was baptized.

A.D. 648.  This year Kenwal gave his relation Cuthred three
thousand hides of land by Ashdown.  Cuthred was the son of
Cwichelm, Cwichelm of Cynegils.

A.D. 650.  This year Egelbert, from Gaul, after Birinus the
Romish bishop, obtained the bishopric of the West-Saxons.

((A.D. 650.  This year Birinus the bishop died, and Agilbert the
Frenchman was ordained.))

A.D. 651.  This year King Oswin was slain, on the twentieth day
of August; and within twelve nights afterwards died Bishop Aidan,
on the thirty-first of August.

A.D. 652.  This year Kenwal fought at Bradford by the Avon.

A.D. 653.  This year, the Middle-Angles under alderman Peada
received the right belief.

A.D. 654.  This year King Anna was slain, and Botolph began to
build that minster at Icanhoe.  This year also died Archbishop
Honorius, on the thirtieth of September.

A.D. 655.  This year Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty
royal personages with him, some of whom were kings.  One of them
was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles.  The
Mercians after this became Christians.  From the beginning of the
world had now elapsed five thousand eight hundred and fifty
winters, when Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of
the Mercians.  In his time came together himself and Oswy,
brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster
to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter.  And they
did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted; because there is a
well there, called Meadswell.  And they began the groundwall, and
wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk,
whose name was Saxulf.  He was very much the friend of God, and
him also loved all people.  He was nobly born in the world, and
rich: he is now much richer with Christ.  But King Peada reigned
no while; for he was betrayed by his own queen, in Easter-tide.
This year Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to
Canterbury, on the twenty-sixth day of March.

A.D. 656.  This year was Peada slain; and Wulfhere, son of Penda,
succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians.  In his time waxed the
abbey of Medhamsted very rich, which his brother had begun.  The
king loved it much, for the love of his brother Peada, and for
the love of his wed-brother Oswy, and for the love of Saxulf the
abbot.  He said, therefore, that he would dignify and honour it
by the counsel of his brothers, Ethelred and Merwal; and by the
counsel of his sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha; and by the
counsel of the archbishop, who was called Deus-dedit; and by the
counsel of all his peers, learned and lewd, that in his kingdom
were.  And he so did.  Then sent the king after the abbot, that
he should immediately come to him.  And he so did.  Then said the
king to the abbot: "Beloved Saxulf, I have sent after thee for
the good of my soul; and I will plainly tell thee for why.  My
brother Peada and my beloved friend Oswy began a minster, for the
love of Christ and St. Peter: but my brother, as Christ willed,
is departed from this life; I will therefore intreat thee,
beloved friend, that they earnestly proceed on their work; and I
will find thee thereto gold and silver, land and possessions, and
all that thereto behoveth."  Then went the abbot home, and began
to work.  So he sped, as Christ permitted him; so that in a few
years was that minster ready.  Then, when the king heard say
that, he was very glad; and bade men send through all the nation,
after all his thanes; after the archbishop, and after bishops:
and after his earls; and after all those that loved God; that
they should come to him.  And he fixed the day when men should
hallow the minster.  And when they were hallowing the minster,
there was the king, Wulfere, and his brother Ethelred, and his
sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha.  And the minster was hallowed
by Archbishop Deusdedit of Canterbury; and the Bishop of
Rochester, Ithamar; and the Bishop of London, who was called
Wina; and the Bishop of the Mercians, whose name was Jeruman; and
Bishop Tuda.  And there was Wilfrid, priest, that after was
bishop; and there were all his thanes that were in his kingdom.
When the minster was hallowed, in the name of St. Peter, and St.
Paul, and St. Andrew, then stood up the king before all his
thanes, and said with a loud voice: "Thanks be to the high
almighty God for this worship that here is done; and I will this
day glorify Christ and St. Peter, and I will that you all confirm
my words. -- I Wulfere give to-day to St. Peter, and the Abbot
Saxulf, and the monks of the minster, these lands, and these
waters, and meres, and fens, and weirs, and all the lands that
thereabout lye, that are of my kingdom, freely, so that no man
have there any ingress, but the abbot and the monks.  This is the
gift.  From Medhamsted to Northborough; and so to the place that
is called Foleys; and so all the fen, right to Ashdike; and from
Ashdike to the place called Fethermouth; and so in a right line
ten miles long to Ugdike; and so to Ragwell; and from Ragwell
five miles to the main river that goeth to Elm and to Wisbeach;
and so about three miles to Trokenholt; and from Trokenholt right
through all the fen to Derworth; that is twenty miles long; and
so to Great Cross; and from Great Cross through a clear water
called Bradney; and thence six miles to Paxlade; and so forth
through all the meres and fens that lye toward Huntingdon-port;
and the meres and lakes Shelfermere and Wittlesey mere, and all
the others that thereabout lye; with land and with houses that
are on the east side of Shelfermere; thence all the fens to
Medhamsted; from Medhamsted all to Welmsford; from Welmsford to
Clive; thence to Easton; from Easton to Stamford; from Stamford
as the water runneth to the aforesaid Northborough." -- These are
the lands and the fens that the king gave unto St. Peter's
minster. -- Then quoth the king: "It is little -- this gift --
but I will that they hold it so royally and so freely, that there
be taken there from neither gild nor gable, but for the monks
alone.  Thus I will free this minster; that it be not subject
except to Rome alone; and hither I will that we seek St. Peter,
all that to Rome cannot go."  During these words the abbot
desired that he would gant him his request.  And the king granted
it.  "I have here (said he) some good monks that would lead their
life in retirement, if they wist where.  Now here is an island,
that is called Ankerig; and I will request, that we may there
build a minster to the honour of St. Mary; that they may dwell
there who will lead their lives in peace and tranquillity."  Then
answered the king, and quoth thus: "Beloved Saxulf, not that only
which thou desirest, but all things that I know thou desirest in
our Lord's behalf, so I approve, and grant.  And I bid thee,
brother Ethelred, and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, for
the release of your souls, that you be witnesses, and that you
subscribe it with your fingers.  And I pray all that come after
me, be they my sons, be they my brethren, or kings that come
after me, that our gift may stand; as they would be partakers of
the life everlasting, and as they would avoid everlasting
punishment.  Whoso lesseneth our gift, or the gift of other good
men, may the heavenly porter lessen him in the kingdom of heaven;
and whoso advanceth it, may the heavenly porter advance him in
the kingdom of heaven."  These are the witnesses that were there,
and that subscribed it with their fingers on the cross of Christ,
and confirmed it with their tongues.  That was, first the king,
Wulfere, who confirmed it first with his word, and afterwards
wrote with his finger on the cross of Christ, saying thus: "I
Wulfere, king, in the presence of kings, and of earls, and of
captains, and of thanes, the witnesses of my gift, before the
Archbishop Deus-dedit, I confirm it with the cross of Christ."
(+) -- "And I Oswy, king of the Northumbrians, the friend of this
minster, and oœ the Abbot Saxulf, commend it with the cross of
Christ." (+) -- "And I Sighere, king, ratify it with the cross of
Christ." (+) -- "And I Sibbi, king, subscribe it with the cross
of Christ." (+) -- "And I Ethelred, the king's brother, granted
the same with the cross of Christ." (+) -- "And we, the king's
sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, approve it." -- "And I
Archbishop of Canterbury, Deus-dedit, ratify it." -- Then
confirmed it all the others that were there with the cross of
Christ (+): namely, Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester; Wina, Bishop of
London; Jeruman, Bishop of the Mercians; and Tuda, bishop; and
Wilfrid, priest, who was afterwards bishop; and Eoppa, priest,
whom the king, Wulfere, sent to preach christianity in the Isle
of Wight; and Saxulf, abbot; and Immine, alderman, and Edbert,
alderman, and Herefrith, alderman, and Wilbert, alderman, and
Abo, alderman; Ethelbald, Brord, Wilbert, Elmund, Frethegis. 
These, and many others that were there, the king's most loyal
subjects, confirmed it all.  This charter was written after our
Lord's Nativity 664 -- the seventh year of King Wulfere -- the
ninth year of Archbishop Deus-dedir.  Then they laid God's curse,
and the curse of all saints, and all christian folks, on
whosoever undid anything that there was done.  "So be it," saith
all.  "Amen." -- When this thing was done, then sent the king to
Rome to the Pope Vitalianus that then was, and desired, that he
would ratify with his writ and with his blessing, all this
aforesaid thing.  And the pope then sent his writ, thus saying:
"I Vitalianus, pope, grant thee, King Wulfere, and Deus-dedit,
archbishop, and Abbot Saxulf, all the things that you desire. 
And I forbid, that any king, or any man, have any ingress, but
the abbot alone; nor shall he be Subject to any man, except the
Pope of Rome and the Archbishop of Canterbury.  If any one
breaketh anything of this, St. Peter with his sword destroy him.
Whosoever holdeth it, St. Peter with heaven's key undo him the
kingdom of heaven." -- Thus was the minster of Medhamsted begun,
that was afterwards called Peter-borough.  Afterwards came
another archbishop to Canterbury, who was called Theodorus; a
very good man and wise; and held his synod with his bishops and
with his clerk.  There was Wilfrid, bishop of the Mercians,
deprived of his bishopric; and Saxulf, abbot, was there chosen
bishop; and Cuthbald, monk of the same minster, was chosen abbot.
This synod was holden after our Lord's Nativity six hundred and
seventy-three winters.

A.D. 658.  This year Kenwal fought with the Welsh at Pen, and
pursued them to the Parret.  This battle was fought after his
return from East-Anglia, where he was three years in exile. 
Penda had driven him thither and deprived him of his kingdom,
because he had discarded his sister.

A.D. 660.  This year Bishop Egelbert departed from Kenwal; and
Wina held the bishopric three years.  And Egbert accepted the
bishopric of Paris, in Gaul, by the Seine.

A.D. 661.  This year, at Easter, Kenwal fought at Pontesbury; and
Wulfere, the son of Penda, pursued him as far as Ashdown. 
Cuthred, the son of Cwichelm, and King Kenbert, died in one year.
Into the Isle of Wight also Wulfere, the son of Penda,
penetrated, and transferred the inhabitants to Ethelwald, king of
the South-Saxons, because Wulfere adopted him in baptism.  And
Eoppa, a mass-priest, by command of Wilfrid and King Wulfere, was
the first of men who brought baptism to the people of the Isle of

A.D. 664.  This year the sun was eclipsed, on the eleventh of
May; and Erkenbert, King of Kent, having died, Egbert his son
succeeded to the kingdom.  Colman with his companions this year
returned to his own country.  This same year there was a great
plague in the island Britain, in which died Bishop Tuda, who was
buried at Wayleigh -- Chad and Wilferth were consecrated -- And
Archbishop Deus-dedit died.

A.D. 667.  This year Oswy and Egbert sent Wighard, a priest, to
Rome, that he might be consecrated there Archbishop of
Canterbury; but he died as soon as he came thither.

((A.D. 667.  This year Wighard went to Rome, even as King Oswy,
and Egbert had sent him.))

A.D. 668.  This year Theodore was consecrated archbishop, and
sent into Britain.

A.D. 669.  This year King Egbert gave to Bass, a mass-priest,
Reculver -- to build a minster upon.

A.D. 670.  This year died Oswy, King of Northumberland, on the
fifteenth day before the calends of March; and Egferth his son
reigned after him.  Lothere, the nephew of Bishop Egelbert,
succeeded to the bishopric over the land of the West-Saxons, and
held it seven years.  He was consecrated by Archbishop Theodore.
Oswy was the son of Ethelfrith, Ethelfrith of Ethelric, Ethelric
of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.

A.D. 671.  This year happened that great destruction among the

A.D. 672.  This year died King Cenwal; and Sexburga his queen
held the government one year after him.

A.D. 673.  This year died Egbert, King of Kent; and the same year
there was a synod at Hertford; and St. Etheldritha began that
monastery at Ely.

A.D. 674.  This year Escwin succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex.
He was the son of Cenfus, Cenfus of Cenferth, Cenferth of
Cuthgils, Cuthgils of Ceolwulf, Ceolwulf of Cynric, Cynric of

A.D. 675.  This year Wulfere, the son of Penda, and Escwin, the
son of Cenfus, fought at Bedwin.  The same year died Wulfere, and
Ethelred succeeded to the government.  In his time sent he to
Rome Bishop Wilfrid to the pope that then was, called Agatho, and
told him by word and by letter, how his brothers Peada and
Wulfere, and the Abbot Saxulf, had wrought a minster, called
Medhamsted; and that they had freed it, against king and against
bishop, from every service; and he besought him that he would
confirm it with his writ and with his blessing.  And the pope
sent then his writ to England, thus saying: "I Agatho, Pope of
Rome, greet well the worthy Ethelred, king of the Mercians, and
the Archbishop Theodorus of Canterbury, and Saxulf, the bishop of
the Mercians, who before was abbot, and all the abbots that are
in England; God's greeting and my blessing.  I have heard the
petition of King Ethelred, and of the Archbishop Theodorus, and
of the Bishop Saxulf, and of the Abbot Cuthbald; and I will it,
that it in all wise be as you have spoken it.  And I ordain, in
behalf of God, and of St. Peter, and of all saints, and of every
hooded head, that neither king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor any man
whatever, have any claim, or gable, or gild, or levy, or take any
service of any kind, from the abbey of Medhamsted.  I command
also, that no shire-bishop be so bold as to hold an ordination or
consecration within this abbacy, except the abbot intreat him,
nor have there any claim to proxies, or synodals, or anything
whatever of any kind.  And I will, that the abbot be holden for
legate of Rome over all that island; and whatever abbot is there
chosen by the monks that he be consecrated by the Archbishop of
Canterbury.  I will and decree, that, whatever man may have made
a vow to go to Rome, and cannot perform it, either from
infirmity, or for his lord's need, or from poverty, or from any
other necessity of any kind whatever, whereby he cannot come
thither, be he of England, or of whatever other island he be, he
may come to that minster of Medhamsted, and have the same
forgiveness of Christ and St. Peter, and of the abbot, and of the
monks, that he should have if he went to Rome.  Now bid I thee,
brother Theodorus, that thou let it be proclaimed through all
England, that a synod be gathered, and this writ be read and
observed.  Also I tell thee, Bishop Saxulf, that, as thou
desirest it, that the minster be free, so I forbid thee, and all
the bishops that after thee come, from Christ and from all his
saints, that ye have no demand from that minster, except so much
as the abbot will.  Now will I say in a word, that, whoso holdeth
this writ and this decree, then be he ever dwelling with God
Almighty in the kingdom of heaven.  And whoso breaketh it, then
be he excommunicated, and thrust down with Judas, and with all
the devils in hell, except he come to repentance.  Amen!"  This
writ sent the Pope Agatho, and a hundred and twenty-five bishops,
by Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, to England.  This was done after
our Lord's Nativity 680, the sixth year of King Ethelred.  Then
the king commanded the Archbishop Theodorus, that he should
appoint a general Wittenmoot at the place called Hatfield.  When
they were there collected, then he allowed the letter to be read
that the pope sent thither; and all ratified and confirmed it.
Then said the king: "All things that my brother Peada, and my
brother Wulfere, and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, gave
and granted to St. Peter and the abbot, these I will may stand;
and I will in my day increase it, for their souls and for my
soul.  Now give I St. Peter to-day into his minster, Medhamsted,
these lands, and all that thereto lyeth; that is, Bredon,
Repings, Cadney, Swineshead, Hanbury, Lodeshall, Scuffanhall,
Cosford, Stratford, Wattleburn, Lushgard, Ethelhun-island,
Bardney.  These lands I give St. Peter just as freely as I
possessed them myself; and so, that none of my successors take
anything therefrom.  Whoso doeth it, have he the curse of the
Pope of Rome, and the curse of all bishops, and of all those that
are witnesses here.  And this I confirm with the token of
Christ." (+)  "I Theodorus, Archbishop of Canterbury, am witness
to this charter of Medhamsted; and I ratify it with my hand, and
I excommunicate all that break anything thereof; and I bless all
that hold it." (+)  "I Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, am witness to
this charter; and I ratify this same curse." (+)  "I Saxulf, who
was first abbot, and now am bishop, I give my curse, and that of
all my successors, to those who break this." -- "I Ostritha,
Ethelred's queen, confirm it." -- "I Adrian, legate, ratify it." 
-- "I Putta, Bishop of Rochester, subscribe it." -- "I Waldhere,
Bishop of London, confirm it." -- "I Cuthbald, abbot, ratify it;
so that, whoso breaketh it, have he the cursing of all bishops
and of all christian folk.  Amen."

A.D. 676.  This year, in which Hedda succeeded to his bishopric,
Escwin died; and Centwin obtained the government of the West-
Saxons.  Centwin was the son of Cynegils, Cynegils of Ceolwulf.
Ethelred, king of the Mercians, in the meantime, overran the land
of Kent.

A.D. 678.  This year appeared the comet-star in August, and shone
every morning, during three months, like a sunbeam.  Bishop
Wilfrid being driven from his bishopric by King Everth, two
bishops were consecrated in his stead, Bosa over the Deirians,
and Eata over the Bernicians.  About the same time also Eadhed
was consecrated bishop over the people of Lindsey, being the
first in that division.

A.D. 679.  This year Elwin was slain, by the river Trent, on the
spot where Everth and Ethelred fought.  This year also died St.
Etheldritha; and the monastery of Coldingiham was destroyed by
fire from heaven.

A.D. 680.  This year Archbishop Theodore appointed a synod at
Hatfield; because he was desirous of rectifying the belief of
Christ; and the same year died Hilda, Abbess of Whitby.

A.D. 681.  This year Trumbert was consecrated Bishop of Hexham,
and Trumwin bishop of the Picts; for they were at that time
subject to this country.  This year also Centwin pursued the
Britons to the sea.

A.D. 684.  This year Everth sent an army against the Scots, under
the command of his alderman, Bright, who lamentably plundered and
burned the churches of God.

A.D. 685.  This year King Everth commanded Cuthbert to be
consecrated a bishop; and Archbishop Theodore, on the first day
of Easter, consecrated him at York Bishop of Hexham; for Trumbert
had been deprived of that see.  The same year Everth was slain by
the north sea, and a large army with him, on the thirteenth day
before the calends of June.  He continued king fifteen winters;
and his brother Elfrith succeeded him in the government.  Everth
was the son of Oswy. Oswy of Ethelferth, Ethelferth of Ethelric,
Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.  About this time Ceadwall began to
struggle for a kingdom.  Ceadwall was the son of Kenbert, Kenbert
of Chad, Chad of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric,
Cynric of Cerdic.  Mull, who was afterwards consigned to the
flames in Kent, was the brother of Ceadwall.  The same year died
Lothhere, King of Kent; and John was consecrated Bishop of
Hexham, where he remained till Wilferth was restored, when John
was translated to York on the death of Bishop Bosa.  Wilferth his
priest was afterwards consecrated Bishop of York, and John
retired to his monastery (21) in the woods of Delta.  This year
there was in Britain a bloody rain, and milk and butter were
turned to blood.

((A.D. 685.  And in this same year Cuthbert was consecrated
Bishop of Hexham by Archbishop Theodore at York, because Bishop
Tumbert had been driven from the bishopric.))

A.D. 686.  This year Ceadwall and his brother Mull spread
devastation in Kent and the Isle of Wight.  This same Ceadwall
gave to St. Peter's minster, at Medhamsted, Hook; which is
situated in an island called Egborough.  Egbald at this time was
abbot, who was the third after Saxulf; and Theodore was
archbishop in Kent.

A.D. 687.  This year was Mull consigned to the flames in Kent,
and twelve other men with him; after which, in the same year,
Ceadwall overran the kingdom of Kent.

A.D. 688.  This year Ceadwall went to Rome, and received baptism
at the hands of Sergius the pope, who gave him the name of Peter;
but in the course of seven nights afterwards, on the twelfth day
before the calends of May, he died in his crisom-cloths, and was
buried in the church of St. Peter.  To him succeeded Ina in the
kingdom of Wessex, and reigned thirty-seven winters.  He founded
the monastery of Glastonbury; after which he went to Rome, and
continued there to the end of his life.  Ina was the son of
Cenred, Cenred of Ceolwald; Ceolwald was the brother of Cynegils;
and both were the sons of Cuthwin, who was the son of Ceawlin;
Ceawlin was the son of Cynric, and Cynric of Cerdic.

((A.D. 688.  This year King Caedwalla went to Rome, and received
baptism of Pope Sergius, and he gave him the name of Peter, and
in about seven days afterwards, on the twelfth before the kalends
of May, while he was yet in his baptismal garments, he died: and
he was buried in St. Peter's church.  And Ina succeeded to the
kingdom of the West-Saxons after him, and he reigned twenty-seven

A.D. 690.  This year Archbishop Theodore, who had been bishop
twenty-two winters, departed this life, (22) and was buried
within the city of Canterbury.  Bertwald, who before this was
abbot of Reculver, on the calends of July succeeded him in the
see; which was ere this filled by Romish bishops, but henceforth
with English.  Then were there two kings in Kent, Wihtred and

A.D. 693.  This year was Bertwald consecrated archbishop by
Godwin, bishop of the Gauls, on the fifth day before the nones of
July; about which time died Gifmund, who was Bishop of Rochester;
and Archbishop Bertwald consecrated Tobias in his stead.  This
year also Dryhtelm (23) retired from the world.

A.D. 694.  This year the people of Kent covenanted with Ina, and
gave him 30,000 pounds in friendship, because they had burned his
brother Mull.  Wihtred, who succeeded to the kingdom of Kent, and
held it thirty-three winters, was the son of Egbert, Egbert of
Erkenbert, Erkenbert of Eadbald, Eadbald of Ethelbert.  And as
soon as he was king, he ordained a great council to meet in the
place that is called Bapchild; in which presided Wihtred, King of
Kent, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Brihtwald, and Bishop Tobias
of Rochester; and with him were collected abbots and abbesses,
and many wise men, all to consult about the advantage of God's
churches that are in Kent.  Now began the king to speak, and
said, "I will that all the minsters and the churches, that were
given and bequeathed to the worship of God in the days of
believing kings, my predecessors, and in the days of my relations
of King Ethelbert and of those that followed him -- shall so
remain to the worship of God, and stand fast for evermore.  For I
Wihtred, earthly king, urged on by the heavenly king, and with
the spirit of righteousness annealed, have of our progenitors
learned this, that no layman should have any right to possess
himself of any church or of any of the things that belong to the
church.  And, therefore, strongly and truly, we set and decree,
and in the name of Almighty God, and of all saints, we forbid all
our succeeding kings, and aldermen, and all lawmen, ever, any
lordship over churches, and over all their appurtenances, which I
or my elders in old days have given for a perpetual inheritance
to the glory of Christ and our Lady St. Mary, and the holy
apostles.  And look!  when it happeneth, that bishop, or abbot,
or abbess, depart from this life, be it told the archbishop, and
with his counsel and injunction be chosen such as be worthy.  And
the life of him, that shall be chosen to so holy a thing, let the
archbishop examine, and his cleanness; and in no wise be chosen
any one, or to so holy a thing consecrated, without the
archbishop's counsel.  Kings shall appoint earls, and aldermen,
sheriffs, and judges; but the archbishop shall consult and
provide for God's flock: bishops, and abbots, and abbesses, and
priests, and deacons, he shall choose and appoint; and also
sanctify and confirm with good precepts and example, lest that
any of God's flock go astray and perish --"

A.D. 697.  This year the Southumbrians slew Ostritha, the queen
of Ethelred, the sister of Everth.

A.D. 699.  This year the Picts slew Alderman Burt.

A.D. 702.  This year Kenred assumed the government of the

A.D. 703.  This year died Bishop Hedda, having held the see of
Winchester twenty-seven winters.

A.D. 704.  This year Ethelred, the son of Penda, King of Mercia,
entered into a monastic life, having reigned twenty-nine winters;
and Cenred succeeded to the government.

A.D. 705.  This year died Ealdferth, king of the Northumbrians,
on the nineteenth day before the calends of January, at
Driffield; and was succeeded by his son Osred.  Bishop Saxulf
also died the same year.

A.D. 709.  This year died Aldhelm, who was bishop by Westwood.
The land of the West-Saxons was divided into two bishoprics in
the first days of Bishop Daniel; who held one whilst Aldhelm held
the other.  Before this it was only one. Forthere succeeded to
Aldhelm; and Ceolred succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia.  And
Cenred went to Rome; and Offa with him.  And Cenred was there to
the end of his life.  The same year died Bishop Wilferth, at
Oundle, but his body was carried to Ripon.  He was the bishop
whom King Everth compelled to go to Rome.

A.D. 710.  This year Acca, priest of Wilferth, succeeded to the
bishopric that Wilferth ere held; and Alderman Bertfrith fought
with the Picts between Heugh and Carau.  Ina also, and Nun his
relative, fought with Grant, king of the Welsh; and the same year
Hibbald was slain.

A.D. 714.  This year died Guthlac the holy, and King Pepin.

A.D. 715.  This year Ina and Ceolred fought at Wanborough; (24)
and King Dagobert departed this life.

A.D. 716.  This year Osred, king of the Northumbrians, was slain
near the southern borders.  He reigned eleven winters after
Ealdferth.  Cenred then succeeded to the government, and held it
two years; then Osric, who held it eleven years.  This same year
died Ceolred, king of the Mercians.  His body lies at Lichfield;
but that of Ethelred, the son of Penda, at Bardney.  Ethelbald
then succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia, and held it one and
forty winters.  Ethelbald was the son of Alwy, Alwy of Eawa, Eawa
of Webba, whose genealogy is already written.  The venerable
Egbert about this time converted the monks of Iona to the right
faith, in the regulation of Easter, and the ecclesiastical

A.D. 718.  This year died Ingild, the brother of Ina.  Cwenburga
and Cuthburga were their sisters.  Cuthburga reared the monastery
of Wimburn; and, though given in marriage to Ealdferth, King of
Northumberland, they parted during their lives.

A.D. 721.  This year Bishop Daniel went to Rome; and the same
year Ina slew Cynewulf, the etheling.  This year also died the
holy Bishop John; who was bishop thirty-three years, and eight
months, and thirteen days.  His body now resteth at Beverley.

A.D. 722.  This year Queen Ethelburga destroyed Taunton, which
Ina had formerly built; Ealdbert wandered a wretched exile in
Surrey and Sussex; and Ina fought with the South-Saxons.

A.D. 725.  This year died Wihtred, King of Kent, on the ninth day
before the calends of May, after a reign of thirty-two winters.
His pedigree is above; and he was succeeded by Eadbert.  Ina this
year also fought with the South-Saxons, and slew Ealdbert, the
etheling, whom he had before driven into exile.

A.D. 727.  This year died Tobias, Bishop of Rochester: and
Archbishop Bertwald consecrated Aldulf bishop in his stead.

A.D. 728.  This year (25) Ina went to Rome, and there gave up the
ghost.  He was succeeded in the kingdom of Wessex by Ethelhard
his relative, who held it fourteen years; but he fought this same
year with Oswald the etheling.  Oswald was the son of Ethelbald,
Ethelbald of Cynebald, Cynebald of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin. 

A.D. 729.  This year appeared the comet-star, and St. Egbert died
in Iona.  This year also died the etheling Oswald; and Osric was
slain, who was eleven winters king of Northumberland; to which
kingdom Ceolwulf succeeded, and held it eight years.  The said
Ceolwulf was the son of Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of
Leodwald, Leodwald of Egwald, Egwald of Ealdhelm, Ealdhelm of
Occa, Occa of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.  Archbishop Bertwald died this
year on the ides of January.  He was bishop thirty-seven winters,
and six months, and fourteen days.  The same year Tatwine, who
was before a priest at Bredon in Mercia, was consecrated
archbishop by Daniel Bishop of Winchester, Ingwald Bishop of
London, Aldwin Bishop of Lichfield, and Aldulf Bishop of
Rochester, on the tenth day of June.  He enjoyed the
archbishopric about three years.

((A.D. 729.  And the same year Osric died; he was king eleven
years; then Ceolwulf succeeded to the kingdom, and held it eight

A.D. 733.  This year Ethelbald took Somerton; the sun was
eclipsed; and Acca was driven from his bishopric.

A.D. 734.  This year was the moon as if covered with blood; and
Archbishop Tatwine and Bede departed this life; and Egbert was
consecrated bishop.

A.D. 735.  This year Bishop Egbert received the pall at Rome.

A.D. 736.  This year Archbishop Nothelm received the pall from
the bishop of the Romans.

A.D. 737.  This year Bishop Forthere and Queen Frithogitha went
to Rome; and King Ceolwulf received the clerical tonsure, giving
his kingdom to Edbert, his uncle's son: who reigned one and
twenty winters.  Bishop Ethelwold and Acca died this year, and
Cynewulf was consecrated bishop.  The same year also Ethelbald
ravaged the land of the Northumbrians.

A.D. 738.  This year Eadbery, the son of Eata the son of
Leodwald, succeeded to the Northumbrian kingdom, and held it one
and twenty winters.  Archbishop Egbert, the son of Eata, was his
brother.  They both rest under one porch in the city of York.

A.D. 740.  This year died King Ethelhard; and Cuthred, his
relative, succeeded to the West-Saxon kingdom, which he held
fourteen winters, during which time he fought many hard battles
with Ethelbald, king of the Mercians.  On the death of Archbishop
Nothelm, Cuthbert was consecrated archbishop, and Dunn, Bishop of
Rochester.  This year York was on fire.

A.D. 742.  This year there was a large synod assembled at
Cliff's-Hoo; and there was Ethelbald, king of Mercia, with
Archbishop Cuthbert, and many other wise men.

A.D. 743.  This year Ethelbald, king of Mercia, and Cuthred, king
of the West-Saxons, fought with the Welsh.

A.D. 744.  This year Daniel resigned the see of Winchester; to
which Hunferth was promoted.  The stars went swiftly shooting;
and Wilferth the younger, who had been thirty winters Bishop of
York, died on the third day before the calends of May.

A.D. 745.  This year died Daniel. Forty-three winters had then
elapsed since he received the episcopal function.

A.D. 746.  This year was King Selred slain.

A.D. 748.  This year was slain Cynric, etheling of the West-
Saxons; Edbert, King of Kent, died; and Ethelbert, son of King
Wihtred, succeeded to the kingdom.

(1)  This introductory part of the "Chronicle" to An. I. first
     printed by Gibson from the Laud MS. only, has been corrected
     by a collation of two additional MSS. in the British Museum,
     "Cotton Tiberius B" lv. and "Domitianus A" viii.  Some
     defects are also here supplied.  The materials of this part
     are to be found in Pliny, Solinus, Orosius, Gildas, and
     Bede.  The admeasurement of the island, however inaccurate,
     is from the best authorities of those times, and followed by
     much later historians.
(2)  Gibson, following the Laud MS. has made six nations of five,
     by introducing the British and Welsh as two distinct tribes.
(3)  "De tractu Armoricano." -- Bede, "Ecclesiastical History" i.
     I.  The word Armenia occurring a few lines above in Bede, it
     was perhaps inadvertently written by the Saxon compiler of
     the "Chronicle" instead of Armorica.
(4)  In case of a disputed succession, "Ubi res veniret in
     dabium," etc. -- Bede, "Ecclesiastical History" i. I.
(5)  Reada, Aelfr.; Reuda, Bede, Hunt. etc.  Perhaps it was
     originally Reutha or Reotha.
(6)  This is an error, arising from the inaccurately written MSS.
     of Orosius and Bede; where "in Hybernia" and "in Hiberniam"
     occur for "in hiberna".  The error is retained in Wheloc's
(7)  Labienus = Laberius.  Venerable Bede also, and Orosius, whom
     he follows verbatim, have "Labienus".  It is probably a
     mistake of some very ancient scribe, who improperly supplied
     the abbreviation "Labius" (for "Laberius") by "Labienus".
(8)  Of these early transactions in Britain King Alfred supplies
     us with a brief but circumstantial account in his Saxon
     paraphrase of "Orosius".
(9)  "8 die Aprilis", Flor. M. West.
(10) Gibbon regrets this chronology, i.e. from the creation of
     the world, which he thinks preferable to the vulgar mode
     from the Christian aera.  But how vague and uncertain the
     scale which depends on a point so remote and undetermined as
     the precise time when the world was created.  If we examine
     the chronometers of different writers we shall find a
     difference, between the maximum and the minimum, of 3368
     years.  The Saxon chronology seems to be founded on that of
     Eusebius, which approaches the medium between the two
(11) An. 42, Flor.  This act is attributed by Orosius, and Bede
     who follows him, to the threatening conduct of Caligula,
     with a remark, that it was he (Pilate) who condemned our
     Lord to death.
(12) An. 48, Flor.  See the account of this famine in King
     Alfred's "Orosius".
(13) Those writers who mention this discovery of the holy cross,
     by Helena the mother of Constantine, disagree so much in
     their chronology, that it is a vain attempt to reconcile
     them to truth or to each other.  This and the other notices
     of ecclesiastical matters, whether Latin or Saxon, from the
     year 190 to the year 380 of the Laud MS. and 381 of the
     printed Chronicle, may be safely considered as
     interpolations, probably posterior to the Norman Conquest.
(14) This is not to be understood strictly; gold being used as a
     general term for money or coin of every description; great
     quantities of which, it is well known, have been found at
     different times, and in many different places, in this
     island: not only of gold, but of silver, brass, copper, etc.
(15) An interpolated legend, from the "Gesta Pontificum",
     repeated by Bede, Florence, Matth. West., Fordun, and
     others.  The head was said to be carried to Edessa.
(16) Merely of those called from him "Benedictines".  But the
     compiler of the Cotton MS., who was probably a monk of that
     order, seems not to acknowledge any other.  Matthew of
     Westminster places his death in 536.
(17) For an interesting and minute account of the arrival of
     Augustine and his companions in the Isle of Thanet, their
     entrance into Canterbury, and their general reception in
     England, vid. Bede, "Hist. Eccles." i. 25, and the following
     chapters, with the Saxon translation by King Alfred.  The
     succeeding historians have in general repeated the very
     words of Bede.
(18) It was originally, perhaps, in the MSS. ICC. the
     abbreviation for 1,200; which is the number of the slain in
     Bede.  The total number of the monks of Bangor is said to
     have been 2,100; most of whom appear to have been employed
     in prayer on this occasion, and only fifty escape by flight.
     Vide Bede, "Hist. Eccles." ii. 2, and the tribe of Latin
     historians who copy him.
(19) Literally, "swinged, or scourged him."  Both Bede and Alfred
     begin by recording the matter as a vision, or a dream;
     whence the transition is easy to a matter of fact, as here
     stated by the Norman interpolators of the "Saxon Annals".
(20) This epithet appears to have been inserted in some copies of
     the "Saxon Chronicle" so early as the tenth century; to
     distinguish the "old" church or minster at Winchester from
     the "new", consecrated A.D. 903.
(21) Beverley-minster, in Yorkshire.
(22) He was a native of Tarsus in Cilicia, the birth-place of St.
(23) This brief notice of Dryhtelm, for so I find the name
     written in "Cotton Tiberius B iv." is totally unintelligible
     without a reference to Bede's "Ecclesiastical History", v.
     12; where a curious account of him may be found, which is
     copied by Matthew of Westminster, anno. 699.
(25) Wothnesbeorhge, Ethelw.; Wonsdike, Malmsb.; Wonebirih, H.
     Hunt; Wodnesbeorh, Flor.; Wodnesbirch, M. West.  There is no
     reason, therefore, to transfer the scene of action to
     Woodbridge, as some have supposed from an erroneous reading.
(26) The establishment of the "English school" at Rome is
     attributed to Ina; a full account of which, and of the
     origin of "Romescot" or "Peter-pence" for the support of it,
     may be seen in Matthew of Westminster.